Table 2.

Overall spontaneous and NNK-induced micronuclei/1,000 mononucleated cells and cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) in 500 cells

Spontaneous (mean ± SE)NNK induced (mean ± SE)Percent mean increase
Cases
    Micronuclei in mononucleated/1,0002.47 ± 0.105.68 ± 0.14130.0
    Cell death/500 cells
        Apoptosis122.17 ± 2.22152.35 ± 2.7824.7
        Necrosis104.12 ± 2.02127.05 ± 2.2622.0
Controls
    Micronuclei in mononucleated/1,0001.28 ± 0.122.10 ± 0.0964.1
    Cell death/500 cells
        Apoptosis32.89 ± 1.6067.58 ± 1.33105.0
        Necrosis28.94 ± 1.3858.46 ± 1.15102.0
  • NOTE: All spontaneous and NNK-induced mean levels were significantly different between cases and controls at the 0.01% level.