Table 2.

Urinary FB1 in relation to tortilla consumption

Maize consumption group*
Low (n = 24)Medium (n = 25)High (n = 26)
Tortilla consumption
    No. tortillas consumed each meal, median (range)2 (1-5)3 (3-3)10 (6-16)
    No. meals per day when tortillas consumed, median (range)<1 (0-0.4)2.5 (2.5-2.5)2.5 (2.5-6)
Urinary FB1 levels
    % Samples above detection limit (FB1 > 20 pg/mL)458096
    Urinary FB1 levels (pg FB1/mL urine), mean (95% confidence interval)35.0 (18.8-65.2)63.1 (36.8-108.2)147.4 (87.6-248.0)§
    Urinary FB1 levels (pg FB1/mg creatinine), mean (95% confidence interval)44.0 (22.3-86.8)92.3 (54.7-155.7)133.9 (78.5-228.3)
  • * Based on tortilla intake.

  • The number of meals per day when tortillas are consumed is defined as 0, never; 0.016, less than once a month; 0.066, one to three times a month; 0.132, once a week; 0.395, two to four times a week; 0.724, five to six times a week; 1, once a day; 2.5, two to three times a day; 4.5, four to five times a day; and 6, six times a day.

  • χ2 = 17.3; P < 0.001.

  • § ANOVA test high versus low maize intake group, F = 7.3, P = 0.0015, and Ptrend = 0.015.

  • ANOVA test high versus low maize intake group, F = 4.04, P = 0.0217, and Ptrend = 0.001.