Table 2.

Association of total caffeine from coffee, tea, and soft drinks with epithelial ovarian cancer risk

Controls (n = 1,263), n (%)Cases (n = 781), n (%)OR* (95% CI)
Daily caffeine equivalents
    None50 (4.0)33 (4.2)1.00
    >0 to <0.5347 (27.7)213 (27.4)1.05 (0.63-1.74)
    0.5 to <1168 (13.4)117 (15.0)1.21 (0.71-2.07)
    1 to <2239 (19.1)152 (19.5)1.06 (0.63-1.79)
    2 to <3243 (19.4)131 (16.8)0.89 (0.52-1.51)
    ≥3207 (16.5)132 (17.0)0.99 (0.58-1.70)
    Missing93Ptrend = 0.38
  • * ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for age, county, year of diagnosis/reference date, race/ethnicity, number of full-term pregnancies, duration of hormonal contraception, education, body mass index, smoking, tubal ligation/hysterectomy, and family history of breast/ovarian cancer.

  • Index of caffeine consumption, where 1.0 is equivalent to caffeine contained in 1 cup of brewed coffee.