Table 1.

Associations of caffeinated and noncaffeinated beverages with epithelial ovarian cancer risk

Controls (n = 1,263), n (%)Cases (n = 781), n (%)OR* (95% CI)
Coffee (instant, brewed, or espresso)
    Caffeine containing
        Nondrinkers341 (27.0)216 (27.7)1.00
        <1 cup/d249 (19.7)155 (19.9)1.05 (0.79-1.40)
        1 to <2 cups/d200 (15.9)137 (17.6)1.10 (0.82-1.48)
        2 to <3 cups/d265 (21.0)148 (19.0)0.90 (0.67-1.19)
        ≥3 cups/d207 (16.4)123 (15.8)0.87 (0.64-1.19)
        Missing12Ptrend = 0.27
    Decaffeinated
        Nondrinkers808 (64.2)532 (68.1)1.00
        <1 cup/d292 (23.2)169 (21.6)1.06 (0.84-1.35)
        1 to <2 cups/d65 (5.2)42 (5.4)1.19 (0.77-1.85)
        2 to <3 cups/d64 (5.1)26 (3.3)0.81 (0.49-1.33)
        ≥3 cups/d30 (2.4)12 (1.5)0.70 (0.35-1.43)
        Missing40Ptrend = 0.54
Tea
    Herbal or decaffeinated tea
        Nondrinkers633 (50.2)430 (55.1)1.00
        <1 cup/d528 (41.8)291 (37.3)0.87 (0.71-1.07)
        ≥1 cup/d101 (8.0)60 (7.7)0.92 (0.63-1.33)
        Missing10Ptrend = 0.28
    Green tea
        Nondrinkers893 (70.8)589 (75.4)1.00
        <1 cup/d316 (25.0)171 (21.9)0.82 (0.66-1.04)
        ≥1 cup/d53 (4.2)21 (2.7)0.46 (0.26-0.84)
        Missing10Ptrend = 0.01
    Black tea
        Nondrinkers623 (49.3)414 (53.0)1.00
        <1 cup/d509 (40.3)293 (37.5)0.93 (0.76-1.14)
        ≥1 cup/d131 (10.4)74 (9.5)0.91 (0.65-1.27)
Colas and root beers
    Caffeine containing
        Nondrinkers489 (38.9)287 (36.8)1.00
        <1 can/d594 (47.2)337 (43.2)0.94 (0.76-1.16)
        1 to <2 cans/d102 (8.1)77 (9.9)1.14 (0.80-1.63)
        ≥2 cans/d73 (5.8)79 (10.1)1.51 (1.03-2.22)
        Missing51Ptrend = 0.07
    Caffeine free
        Nondrinkers903 (71.6)558 (71.5)1.00
        <1 can/d305 (24.2)182 (23.3)1.05 (0.84-1.32)
        1 to <2 cans/d37 (2.9)20 (2.6)0.91 (0.51-1.62)
        ≥2 cans/d16 (1.3)20 (2.6)2.60 (1.25-5.39)
        Missing21Ptrend = 0.116
  • * ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for age, county, year of diagnosis/reference date, race/ethnicity, number of full-term pregnancies, duration of hormonal contraception, education, body mass index, smoking, tubal ligation/hysterectomy, and family history of breast/ovarian cancer.