Table 4.

Multivariate adjusted HR (95% CI) for exocrine pancreatic cancer according to energy-adjusted baseline intake of flavonoids by intervention group (placebo versus α-tocopherol, β-carotene, or both) in the ATBC Study (n = 27,111), 1985-2004

FlavonoidQuartiles of intake (1: lowest, 4: highest)
PtrendPinteraction
1*2
3
4
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Total flavonoids
    Range of intake (mg)≤7.10>7.11-10.74>10.74-18.69>18.69
    Placebo
        No. cases/person-years27/22,52121/23,16822/23,9659/24,802
    Multivariate adjusted10.83 (0.46-1.48)0.88 (0.49-1.57)0.36 (0.17-0.78)0.009
    Supplement
        No. cases/person-years65/67,62247/68,92649/70,45366/70,207
    Multivariate adjusted10.70 (0.48-1.02)0.73 (0.50-1.06)0.98 (0.69-1.39)0.390.002
Flavonols
    Range of intake (mg)≤5.69>5.69-7.95>7.95-11.70>11.70
    Placebo
        No. cases/person-years27/22,09924/23,16115/24,57213/24,623
        Multivariate adjusted10.94 (0.54-1.64)0.58 (0.30-1.10)0.54 (0.27-1.07)0.04
    Supplement
        No. cases/person-years58/67,50353/68,92244/70,06772/70,715
        Multivariate adjusted10.91 (0.62-1.32)0.75 (0.51-1.12)1.24 (0.87-1.78)0.110.004
Kaempferol
    Range of intake (mg)≤0.24>0.24-0.44>0.44-1.29>1.29
    Placebo
        No. cases/person-years26/22,78520/23,29124/23,6089/24,770
        Multivariate adjusted10.82 (0.45-1.50)1.00 (0.56-1.77)0.37 (0.17-0.79)0.009
    Supplement
        No. cases/person-years60/68,09250/68,57257/70,62360/69,920
        Multivariate adjusted10.79 (0.54-1.15)0.89 (0.61-1.28)0.95 (0.66-1.38)0.670.006
Myricetin
    Range of intake (mg)≤0.40>0.40-0.66>0.66-1.12>1.12
    Placebo
        No. cases/person-years26/23,05124/23,19415/23,98714/24,224
        Multivariate adjusted10.95 (0.54-1.66)0.60 (0.32-1.14)0.61 (0.31-1.18)0.10
    Supplement
        No. cases/person-years54/67,73852/68,42356/70,33565/70,712
        Multivariate adjusted10.96 (0.65-1.40)1.02 (0.70-1.48)1.21 (0.83-1.75)0.210.02
Quercetin
    Range of intake (mg)≤4.82>4.82-6.61>6.61-9.10>9.10
    Placebo
        No. cases/person-years23/22,04328/23,42016/24,22512/24,767
        Multivariate adjusted11.27 (0.72-2.22)0.74 (0.38-1.41)0.59 (0.29-1.23)0.06
    Supplement
        No. cases/person-years58/67,66448/68,43252/70,25569/70,856
        Multivariate adjusted10.84 (0.57-1.23)0.90 (0.61-1.31)1.20 (0.84-1.73)0.160.007
Flavan-3-ols
    Range of intake (mg)≤1.12>1.12-2.51>2.51-6.76>6.76
    Placebo
        No. cases/person-years23/23,13824/22,80223/23,9209/24,596
        Multivariate adjusted11.12 (0.63-2.00)1.06 (0.59-1.91)0.42 (0.19-0.92)0.01
    Supplement
        No. cases/person-years60/68,69453/68,69952/69,84562/69,970
        Multivariate adjusted10.85 (0.58-1.23)0.82 (0.56-1.20)1.00 (0.69-1.44)0.540.005
Catechin
    Range of intake (mg)≤0.43>0.43-0.92>0.92-2.53>2.53
    Placebo
        No. cases/person-years22/22,88226/23,06122/23,8379/24,676
        Multivariate adjusted11.27 (0.71-2.27)1.05 (0.57-1.92)0.43 (0.20-0.95)0.009
    Supplement
        No. cases/person-years61/68,99953/68,64951/69,78062/69,779
        Multivariate adjusted10.83 (0.57-1.20)0.79 (0.54-1.15)0.97 (0.68-1.40)0.600.005
Epicatechin
    Range of intake (mg)≤0.63>0.63-1.56>1.56-4.35>4.35
    Placebo
        No. cases/person-years22/23,33525/22,71622/23,73110/24,674
        Multivariate adjusted11.25 (0.70-2.23)1.10 (0.60-2.01)0.50 (0.23-1.06)0.02
    Supplement
        No. cases/person-years65/68,44948/68,57953/70,31361/69,866
        Multivariate adjusted10.71 (0.49-1.04)0.77 (0.53-1.11)0.91 (0.63-1.30)0.680.01
Flavones
    Range of intake (mg)≤0.041>0.041-0.069>0.069-0.148>0.148
    Placebo
        No. cases/person-years21/23,56516/22,62125/23,72917/24,540
        Multivariate adjusted10.80 (0.42-1.53)1.24 (0.69-2.23)0.89 (0.46-1.69)0.80
    Supplement
        No. cases/person-years56/68,62358/68,58650/69,60063/70,398
        Multivariate adjusted11.00 (0.69-1.45)0.83 (0.57-1.22)1.09 (0.75-1.56)0.500.42
Apigenin
    Range of intake (mg)≤0.020>0.020-0.036>0.036-0.082>0.082
    Placebo
        No. cases/person-years20/23,76019/23,35920/23,12920/24,208
        Multivariate adjusted10.94 (0.50-1.77)0.96 (0.52-1.79)1.04 (0.56-1.95)0.79
    Supplement
        No. cases/person-years55/70,47159/69,26854/67,61259/69,856
        Multivariate adjusted11.04 (0.72-1.51)0.93 (0.64-1.36)1.03 (0.71-1.49)0.870.98
Luteolin
    Range of intake (mg)≤0.014>0.014-0.027>0.027-0.057>0.057
    Placebo
        No. cases/person-years17/22,89924/22,52718/23,94020/25,089
        Multivariate adjusted11.51 (0.81-2.81)1.15 (0.59-2.24)1.35 (0.70-2.61)0.67
    Supplement
        No. cases/person-years63/67,78754/67,74350/70,01660/71,662
        Multivariate adjusted10.83 (0.58-1.19)0.77 (0.53-1.12)0.91 (0.63-1.30)0.910.99
  • * Reference category.

  • Multivariate-adjusted HRs are adjusted for age at randomization, years of smoking, total number of cigarettes per day, self-reported history of diabetes mellitus, and energy-adjusted saturated fat intake.