Table 3.

HR (95% CI) for exocrine pancreatic cancer according to energy-adjusted baseline daily intake of flavonoid-rich foods in the ATBC Study (n = 27,111), 1985-2004

FoodQuintiles of energy-adjusted intake (1 = lowest, 5 = highest)
Ptrend
1*2
3
4
5
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Fruits
    Range of intake (g)≤52.3352.34-89.90>89.90-131.9>131.9-191.3>191.3
    No. cases/person-years69/72,83960/73,37957/74,14354/75,56666/75,736
    Multivariate adjusted10.86 (0.61-1.22)0.80 (0.56-1.15)0.76 (0.53-1.10)0.95 (0.67-1.34)0.82
Apples
    Range of intake (g)00.25-10.68>10.71-25.6225.64-49.83>49.95
    No. cases/person-years77/79,78357/74,04449/71,29066/72,60657/73,940
    Multivariate adjusted10.85 (0.60-1.20)0.77 (0.54-1.19)1.01 (0.72-1.40)0.87 (0.61-1.23)0.88
Berries
    Range of intake (g)≤11.53>11.53-21.76>21.76-34.41>34.41-55.48>55.48
    No. cases/person-years71/72,89449/73,21563/74,20954/75,64169/75,704
    Multivariate adjusted10.66 (0.46-0.95)0.85 (0.60-1.19)0.70 (0.49-1.01)0.88 (0.63-1.24)0.94
Citrus fruits
    Range of intake (g)≤4.43>4.43-13.9914.00-27.72>27.72-58.79>58.80
    No. cases/person-years65/73,30168/72,74854/74,62053/75,97366/75,020
    Multivariate adjusted11.05 (0.75-1.48)0.85 (0.59-1.22)0.84 (0.58-1.20)1.05 (0.74-1.49)0.84
Fruit juices
    Range of intake (g)00.002-32.8632.94-121.5>121.5
    No. cases/person-years88/97,52984/90,69374/92,05760/91,384
    Multivariate adjustedReference1.08 (0.80-1.46)0.96 (0.71-1.31)0.84 (0.60-1.17)0.16
Wine
    Range of intake (g)00.10-23.7>24.3
    No. cases/person-years228/286,70847/42,29531/42,659
    Multivariate adjustedReference1.48 (1.08-2.03)1.02 (0.70-1.49)0.86
Vegetables
    Range of intake (g)≤208.3>208.3-258.2>258.2-307.2>307.2-373.0>373.0
    No. cases/person-years70/70,01858/72,83758/74,55466/75,64654/78,608
    Multivariate adjustedReference0.81 (0.57-1.15)0.81 (0.57-1.16)0.95 (0.67-1.33)0.78 (0.54-1.12)0.37
Beans
    Range of intake (g)0>0
    No. cases/person-years263/315,84643/55,816
    Multivariate adjustedReference0.99 (0.72-1.37)0.95
Cabbage
    Range of intake (g)0>0.16-4.3>4.3
    No. cases/person-years241/273,86031/52,29434/45,508
    Multivariate adjustedReference0.74 (0.51-1.07)0.98 (0.68-1.40)0.76
Onions
    Range of intake (g)0>0
    No. cases/person-years303/365,5883/6,074
    Multivariate adjustedReference0.59 (0.19-1.83)0.36
Tea
    Range of intake (g)03.93-157.1>157.1
    No. cases/person-years209/235,48941/68,17156/68,003
    Multivariate adjustedReference0.70 (0.50-0.98)0.96 (0.71-1.29)0.78
  • * Reference category.

  • Multivariate-adjusted HRs are adjusted for age at randomization, years of smoking, total number of cigarettes per day, self-reported history of diabetes mellitus, and energy-adjusted saturated fat intake.

  • Reference category was an intake of zero. Intake values are not energy adjusted.