Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the ATBC Study according to quintiles of energy-adjusted total flavonoid consumption (n = 27,111, means or proportions)

Characteristic*Quintiles of energy-adjusted total flavonoid consumption (mg/d)
≤6.45>6.45-9.14>9.14-12.8>12.8-22.9>22.9
Demographics
    Age at randomization (y)57.157.457.157.157.1
    Secondary school education (%)13.116.920.726.831.1
Lifestyle behaviors
    Years smoked37.036.335.935.235.2
    Cigarettes smoked per day22.320.920.119.619.2
    History of diabetes mellitus (%)3.33.84.74.84.5
    Family history of pancreatic cancer (%)2.72.83.03.13.3
Mean duration of follow-up (y)13.313.513.814.014.0
Mean daily nutrient intake
    Calories (kcal)2,9372,5182,5872,6832,717
    Total fat (g)127125123121120
    Saturated fat (g)57.354.052.050.349.2
Mean daily flavonoid intake
    Flavonols (mg)3.946.228.0710.919.4
    Kaempferol (mg)0.1450.3150.5011.044.79
    Myricetin (mg)0.3580.5700.7401.031.72
    Quercetin (mg)3.445.346.838.8312.9
    Flavan-3-ol (mg)0.4411.432.615.5922.8
    Catechin (mg)0.2080.5800.992.068.25
    Epicatechin (mg)0.2340.8551.623.5314.6
    Flavones (mg)0.0770.1100.1370.1600.154
    Apigenin (mg)0.0520.0720.0890.1010.097
    Luteolin (mg)0.0250.0380.0480.0590.057
Mean daily flavonoid-rich food intake
    Fruits (g)55.498.1138183170
    Apples (g)5.9217.231.148.342.9
    Berries (g)14.828.539.951.846.2
    Citrus fruits (g)19.328.537.143.842.2
    Fruit juices (g)32.475.697.9123116
    Wine (g)4.216.1110.017.517.4
    Vegetables (g)235282309326314
    Beans (g)0.160.330.530.800.90
    Cabbage (g)0.781.372.112.882.92
    Onions (g)0.010.020.080.301.02
    Tea (g)−1.063.409.7641.1314
  • * Generalized linear models adjusted for age at randomization were used to estimate the means within each total flavonoid intake quintile for the continuous population characteristics and the frequency proportions for categorical population characteristics.

  • Ninth grade or higher.