Table 4.

Association of meat and HCA intake levels with colorectal polyp risk stratified by polymorphisms in the AhR, CYP1A2, NAT2, and NAT1 genes, the TCPS, 2003-2005

GeneIntakePolyp type
Adenomatous only
Hyperplastic only
Concurrent adenomatous and hyperplastic
OR (95% CI)*PintOR (95% CI)*PintOR (95% CI)*Pint
AhR (rs2066853)
    GGTotal meat0.99 (0.94-1.03)1.04 (0.98-1.10)0.98 (0.91-1.05)
Red meat1.01 (0.96-1.06)1.04 (0.98-1.11)1.02 (0.95-1.10)
MeIQx1.00 (0.95-1.04)1.04 (0.98-1.11)1.02 (0.95-1.09)
PhIP0.99 (0.95-1.04)1.04 (0.98-1.10)0.98 (0.92-1.05)
DiMeIQx0.98 (0.94-1.03)1.04 (0.98-1.10)1.01 (0.95-1.08)
BaP0.99 (0.95-1.04)1.06 (1.00-1.12)0.98 (0.92-1.05)
Mutagenic activity0.97 (0.93-1.02)1.01 (0.95-1.07)0.99 (0.93-1.06)
    GA/AATotal meat1.02 (0.94-1.10)0.6851.12 (1.00-1.26)0.1851.32 (1.14-1.52)0.002
Red meat1.02 (0.94-1.11)0.6911.06 (0.94-1.20)0.7961.28 (1.11-1.49)0.047
MeIQx1.00 (0.92-1.09)0.7061.10 (0.98-1.23)0.6811.20 (1.05-1.38)0.102
PhIP1.01 (0.94-1.09)0.9881.11 (0.99-1.23)0.3281.20 (1.06-1.35)0.030
DiMeIQx1.02 (0.95-1.10)0.4081.16 (1.03-1.30)0.2331.20 (1.06-1.36)0.067
BaP1.00 (0.93-1.08)0.8631.05 (0.94-1.18)0.8921.11 (0.98-1.26)0.205
Mutagenic activity1.02 (0.94-1.10)0.4631.15 (1.03-1.28)0.0881.22 (1.07-1.38)0.036
CYP1A2 (rs762551)
    AATotal meat1.02 (0.97-1.08)1.08 (1.01-1.17)1.04 (0.96-1.13)
Red meat1.03 (0.97-1.10)1.06 (0.98-1.14)1.05 (0.96-1.15)
MeIQx0.99 (0.93-1.05)1.03 (0.96-1.11)1.01 (0.93-1.10)
PhIP1.01 (0.96-1.07)1.04 (0.97-1.12)1.01 (0.93-1.09)
DiMeIQx0.99 (0.94-1.05)1.07 (0.99-1.14)1.04 (0.96-1.13)
BaP0.99 (0.93-1.04)1.05 (0.98-1.13)0.98 (0.90-1.06)
Mutagenic activity0.98 (0.93-1.04)1.04 (0.97-1.11)1.00 (0.93-1.09)
    AC/CCTotal meat0.97 (0.92-1.03)0.3071.03 (0.95-1.12)0.3941.05 (0.96-1.15)0.980
Red meat1.01 (0.95-1.06)0.6731.05 (0.96-1.14)0.7561.11 (1.01-1.22)0.425
MeIQx1.01 (0.95-1.06)0.5871.07 (0.99-1.16)0.7721.11 (1.02-1.22)0.057
PhIP0.99 (0.94-1.04)0.7731.07 (0.99-1.15)0.6821.07 (0.98-1.16)0.294
DiMeIQx1.00 (0.95-1.05)0.7981.05 (0.97-1.13)0.7191.06 (0.98-1.15)0.416
BaP1.02 (0.97-1.08)0.2641.07 (0.99-1.15)0.8421.06 (0.98-1.16)0.163
Mutagenic activity0.99 (0.94-1.05)0.5671.04 (0.96-1.12)0.9961.08 (0.99-1.18)0.117
NAT2
    Slow acetylatorTotal meat1.02 (0.97-1.07)107 (0.99-1.15)0.98 (0.91-1.06)
Red meat1.02 (0.96-1.08)1.04 (0.96-1.12)0.99 (0.91-1.08)
MeIQx1.01 (0.96-1.07)1.03 (0.95-1.10)1.01 (0.93-1.10)
PhIP1.01 (0.96-1.06)1.06 (0.99-1.13)1.01 (0.94-1.09)
DiMeIQx1.03 (0.98-1.08)1.04 (0.98-1.12)1.03 (0.96-1.11)
BaP1.02 (0.97-1.07)1.06 (0.99-1.14)0.97 (0.90-1.05)
Mutagenic activity1.00 (0.95-1.05)1.03 (0.96-1.10)1.01 (0.93-1.09)
    Rapid or intermediate acetylatorTotal meat0.98 (0.92-1.04)0.3681.06 (0.97-1.14)0.8851.12 (1.02-1.22)0.039
Red meat1.02 (0.96-1.09)0.7091.08 (0.99-1.18)0.4121.20 (1.08-1.32)0.014
MeIQx0.98 (0.92-1.04)0.6261.09 (1.00-1.18)0.2471.11 (1.01-1.22)0.264
PhIP0.99 (0.94-1.05)0.5461.04 (0.97-1.13)0.9181.06 (0.97-1.15)0.402
DiMeIQx0.95 (0.90-1.01)0.0721.08 (1.00-1.17)0.5001.07 (0.98-1.17)0.516
BaP0.98 (0.92-1.04)0.2241.06 (0.98-1.15)0.9531.07 (0.97-1.17)0.187
Mutagenic activity0.98 (0.92-1.03)0.5651.05 (0.97-1.13)0.7661.07 (0.98-1.17)0.402
NAT1
    Slow or intermediate acetylatorTotal meat0.98 (0.93-1.03)1.04 (0.97-1.12)0.99 (0.92-1.07)
Red meat1.00 (0.94-1.05)1.02 (0.95-1.10)1.03 (0.95-1.12)
MeIQx1.00 (0.95-1.05)1.04 (0.97-1.12)1.01 (0.93-1.09)
PhIP1.00 (0.95-1.05)1.06 (0.99-1.14)1.00 (0.93-1.07)
DiMeIQx0.99 (0.94-1.04)1.08 (1.00-1.15)1.02 (0.94-1.10)
BaP1.01 (0.96-1.06)1.04 (0.97-1.11)0.98 (0.91-1.06)
Mutagenic activity0.99 (0.94-1.04)1.06 (0.99-1.13)1.00 (0.93-1.08)
    Rapid acetylatorTotal meat1.03 (0.97-1.09)0.7281.09 (1.00-1.18)0.8681.15 (1.04-1.27)0.044
Red meat1.05 (0.99-1.12)0.8681.10 (1.00-1.20)0.4151.17 (1.06-1.31)0.069
MeIQx1.00 (0.94-1.06)0.5431.05 (0.97-1.15)0.9111.14 (1.03-1.27)0.068
PhIP1.01 (0.96-1.07)0.8801.04 (0.97-1.13)0.5191.10 (1.00-1.20)0.230
DiMeIQx1.00 (0.95-1.06)0.7501.03 (0.95-1.12)0.3491.10 (1.00-1.21)0.291
BaP0.99 (0.94-1.05)0.2861.09 (1.00-1.19)0.9301.08 (0.98-1.19)0.365
Mutagenic activity0.99 (0.94-1.05)0.5891.02 (0.94-1.10)0.2981.10 (1.01-1.21)0.232
  • * ORs were estimated for a 10% increment of intake and adjusted for age, sex, study site, educational attainment, indication for colonoscopy, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and regular NSAID use.

  • P values for interactions of dietary exposure and genotype were derived from the log-likelihood ratio test.

  • Definitions for imputation of acetylator status for NAT2 and NAT1 are presented in Appendices 1 and 2.