Table 4.

RRs (95% CIs) for meat mutagens and risk of prostate cancer

VariableMedianAll cases (n = 668)*
Incident cases (n = 613)*
Advanced cases (n = 140)*
Cases (n)RR (95% CI)Cases (n)RR (95% CI)Cases (n)RR (95% CI)
PhIP (ng/d)
    Q1 (reference)19.81581.001451.00341.00
    Q249.51411.15 (0.91-1.44)1301.16 (0.91-1.47)270.99 (0.60-1.65)
    Q384.81251.01 (0.80-1.28)1120.99 (0.78-1.27)250.96 (0.57-1.61)
    Q4140.61201.02 (0.81-1.30)1111.04 (0.81-1.33)220.88 (0.51-1.50)
    Q5281.31241.04 (0.82-1.32)1151.06 (0.83-1.35)321.23 (0.76-2.01)
    P for trend0.910.960.36
MeIQx (ng/d)
    Q1 (reference)12.31381.001241.00331.00
    Q230.21301.06 (0.84-1.35)1171.07 (0.83-1.37)220.76 (0.44-1.30)
    Q350.81381.19 (0.94-1.51)1271.23 (0.96-1.57)270.96 (0.58-1.60)
    Q480.71331.14 (0.90-1.45)1251.20 (0.94-1.54)291.00 (0.60-1.65)
    Q5148.21291.15 (0.90-1.47)1201.20 (0.93-1.55)290.92 (0.55-1.52)
    P for trend0.290.160.94
DiMeIQx (ng/d)
    Q1 (reference)0.11401.001271.00371.00
    Q21.91551.16 (0.92-1.45)1411.16 (0.91-1.48)260.73 (0.44-1.20)
    Q33.61131.10 (0.86-1.41)1021.10 (0.85-1.43)130.48 (0.25-0.90)
    Q45.81271.17 (0.92-1.50)1181.21 (0.94-1.56)351.14 (0.71-1.81)
    Q510.91331.19 (0.93-1.51)1251.24 (0.96-1.59)290.85 (0.52-1.39)
    P for trend0.230.120.87
BaP (ng/d)
    Q1 (reference)0.91841.001701.00421.00
    Q23.61380.79 (0.64-0.99)1230.77 (0.61-0.97)310.79 (0.49-1.25)
    Q325.01160.81 (0.64-1.02)1080.82 (0.64-1.04)240.74 (0.45-1.22)
    Q459.01220.99 (0.79-1.25)1090.96 (0.76-1.23)210.80 (0.47-1.35)
    Q5124.21080.91 (0.71-1.16)1030.95 (0.74-1.22)220.84 (0.50-1.42)
    P for trend0.690.430.78
Mutagenic activity (per 1,000 revertant colonies/d)
    Q1 (reference)1.91541.001391.00341.00
    Q24.11341.04 (0.83-1.32)1221.06 (0.83-1.35)230.80 (0.47-1.37)
    Q36.51321.10 (0.87-1.39)1191.11 (0.87-1.42)220.80 (0.46-1.37)
    Q410.01261.10 (0.87-1.40)1181.15 (0.90-1.48)321.21 (0.74-1.97)
    Q517.81221.06 (0.83-1.35)1151.11 (0.87-1.43)290.98 (0.60-1.62)
    P for trend0.680.390.59
  • NOTE: All cases refer to total incident cases; incident cases refer to those diagnosed after 1 year of follow-up; advanced cases defined as those classified as disease stage III or IV.

  • * Adjusted for age, state of residence (Iowa or North Carolina), race (White, Black, other, and missing), family history of prostate cancer (yes/no), and smoking status (never, former, current, and missing).