Table 3.

RRs (95% CIs) for meat cooking methods and doneness levels and risk of prostate cancer

VariableMedian (g/d)All cases (n = 668)*
Incident cases (n = 613)*
Advanced cases (n = 140)*
Cases (n)RR (95% CI)Cases (n)RR (95% CI)Cases (n)RR (95% CI)
Cooking method
    Grilled meat (g/d)
        Q1 (reference)0.02051.001881.00441.00
        Q210.71470.94 (0.75-1.16)1360.95 (0.76-1.19)280.87 (0.53-1.41)
        Q324.81210.83 (0.66-1.05)1090.83 (0.65-1.05)180.59 (0.34-1.03)
        Q442.3860.91 (0.70-1.17)770.90 (0.68-1.18)210.94 (0.56-1.61)
        Q573.31091.12 (0.87-1.43)1031.18 (0.91-1.53)291.27 (0.76-2.10)
        P for trend0.430.270.28
    Pan-fried meat (g/d)
        Q1 (reference)1.01521.001421.00441.00
        Q210.21240.94 (0.74-1.20)1100.90 (0.70-1.15)220.63 (0.38-1.06)
        Q321.91210.93 (0.73-1.18)1130.93 (0.72-1.19)180.52 (0.30-0.91)
        Q438.51401.04 (0.82-1.31)1251.00 (0.78-1.27)260.72 (0.44-1.19)
        Q572.61311.00 (0.78-1.27)1231.00 (0.78-1.29)300.79 (0.49-1.27)
        P for trend0.740.630.73
    Broiled meat (g/d)
        Q1 (reference)0.001351.001251.00401.00
        Q20.041641.08 (0.86-1.36)1511.07 (0.85-1.36)320.75 (0.47-1.20)
        Q30.14861.01 (0.76-1.34)780.97 (0.73-1.30)120.53 (0.28-1.03)
        Q44.221411.26 (0.99-1.60)1251.18 (0.92-1.53)200.68 (0.40-1.17)
        Q523.431421.14 (0.90-1.44)1341.16 (0.91-1.48)360.95 (0.61-1.49)
        P for trend0.400.260.38
Doneness level
    Rare or medium total meat (g/d)
        Q1 (reference)0.02561.002391.00481.00
        Q218.02261.07 (0.89-1.30)2051.06 (0.87-1.29)521.47 (0.95-2.16)
        Q363.01861.05 (0.85-1.29)1691.04 (0.84-1.29)401.19 (0.75-1.88)
        P for trend0.780.800.71
    Well and very well done total meat (g/d)
        Q1 (reference)18.02041.001871.00351.00
        Q240.62351.14 (0.94-1.38)2121.12 (0.92-1.37)511.63 (1.06-2.52)
        Q380.32291.22 (1.00-1.49)2141.26 (1.02-1.54)541.97 (1.26-3.08)
        P for trend0.060.030.004
  • NOTE: All cases refer to total incident cases; incident cases refer to those diagnosed after 1 year of follow-up; advanced cases defined as those classified as disease stage III or IV.

  • * Adjusted for age, state of residence (Iowa or North Carolina), race (White, Black, other, and missing), family history of prostate cancer (yes/no), and smoking status (never, former, current, and missing).