Table 2.

Geometric means (95% confidence limits) for urinary total nicotine, total cotinine, total 3-HC, nicotine equivalents, nicotine metabolite ratio, and caffeine metabolite ratio

Native Hawaiian
White
Japanese American
nMean (95% CI)nMean (95% CI)nMean (95% CI)
Females
    Total nicotine*998.18 (6.99-9.58)996.86 (5.84-8.04)977.95 (6.76-9.34)
    Total cotinine*12.4 (10.8-14.1)12.4 (10.9-14.2)9.50 (8.30-10.9)
    Total 3-HC*8.29 (6.64-10.4),12.4 (9.91-15.5)4.58 (3.65-5.75)
    Nicotine equivalents*32.6 (28.8-36.9)37.5 (33.2-42.4)25.4 (22.4-28.7)
    Nicotine equivalents adjusted for CPD*32.6 (28.9-36.7)35.8 (31.7-40.4)26.7 (23.6-30.1)
    Nicotine metabolite ratio*0.67 (0.55-0.81),1.00 (0.82-1.22)0.48 (0.40-0.59)
    Caffeine metabolite ratio*1.72 (1.49-1.98)1.79 (1.55-2.06)1.04 (0.90-1.20)
Males
    Total Nicotine939.54 (7.88-11.6)999.99 (8.29-12.0)989.89 (8.26 -11.9)
    Total cotinine13.9 (11.8-16.3)16.8 (14.3-19.6)11.4 (9.79-13.3)
    Total 3-HC9.76 (7.77-12.3),15.2 (12.2-19.0)5.92 (4.78-7.35)
    Nicotine equivalents37.0 (31.7-43.0)47.2 (40.9-54.5)31.3 (27.1-36.2)
    Nicotine equivalents adjusted for CPD37.8 (32.4-43.9)45.2 (39.1-52.5)32.0 (27.7-37.0)
    Nicotine metabolite ratio0.70 (0.59-0.84)0.91 (0.76-1.08)0.52 (0.44-0.62)
    Caffeine metabolite ratio1.35 (1.17-1.56)1.35 (1.26-1.67)1.01 (0.88-1.16)
All§
    Total nicotine1928.95 (7.92-10.1)1988.21 (7.27-9.27)1958.84 (7.83-9.97)
    Total cotinine13.3 (12.0 -14.7)14.3 (12.9-15.8)10.4 (9.37-11.5)
    Total 3-HC8.29 (6.64-10.4)†,‡12.4 (9.91-15.5)4.58 (3.65-5.75)
    Nicotine equivalents35.0 (31.8-38.5),41.9 (38.2-46.1)28.1 (25.6-30.9)
    Nicotine equivalents adjusted for CPD35.2 (32.2-38.9)40.0 (36.4-43.9)29.2 (26.5-32.0)
    Nicotine metabolite ratio0.68 (0.60-0.78),0.95 (0.84-1.09)0.50 (0.44-0.57)
    Caffeine metabolite ratio1.53 (1.38-1.70)1.60 (1.44-1.77)1.03 (0.93-1.14)
  • NOTE: Means are adjusted for age, number of CPD (except for nicotine equivalents model), and 12 h urine volume (except caffeine metabolite ratio, adjusted for caffeine test urine volume) by multiple covariance analysis.

  • * Total nicotine (free + nicotine N-glucuronide), total cotinine (free + cotinine N-glucuronide), total 3-HC (free + 3-HC N-glucuronide), and nicotine equivalents are expressed in nmol/mL. The ratios are unitless.

  • P value for comparison with Whites is <0.05 (except for nicotine metabolite ratio in native Hawaiian men, where P = 0.06).

  • P value for comparison with Japanese Americans is <0.05.

  • § Further adjusted for sex.