Table 1.

Main characteristics of study participants by sex and race (n = 585)

Native Hawaiian, median (interquartile range)White, median (interquartile range)Japanese American, median (interquartile range)
Females
    n (%)99 (51.6)99 (50.0)97 (49.7)
    Age (y)60 (57-66)61 (57-66)61 (58-67)
    CPD20.0 (12.0-16.0)*20.0 (18.7-30.0)16.0 (13.0-20.0)*
    Smoking duration (y)42.0 (37.0-46.0)43.0 (39.0-47.0)41.5 (38.0-46.0)
    BMI (kg/m2)28.2 (24.0-31.5)*,24.1 (21.2-29.0)24.9 (21.4-27.6)
    Total urine volume (mL)739.0 (499.0-1,059.0)874.0 (444.0-1,160.0)824.0 (529.0-1,133.0)
    Fruits intake (g/kcal/d)44.0 (2.35-168.2)*,117.4 (64.6-256.7)162.7 (41.4-264.9)
    Vegetables intake (g/kcal/d)186.7 (101.4-247.6)241.3 (118.0-358.0)207.4 (152.2-281.6)
    Caffeine intake (mg/kcal/d)196.2 (86.5-304.3)224.6 (137.9-348.9)221.5 (120.7-334.7)
    Alcohol intake (g/kcal/d)0.28 (0.01-0.71)0.45 (0.16-24.0)0.31 (0.07-0.54)
Males
    n (%)93 (48.4)99 (50.0)98 (50.3)
    Age (y)59 (49-65)*61 (58-66)61 (57-66)
    CPD20.0 (18.0-25.0)*25.0 (20.0-40.0)20.0 (20.0-25.0)
    Smoking duration (y)*41.0 (32.0-47.0),46.0 (41.0-50.0)45.0 (40.0-49.0)
    BMI (kg/m2)28.3 (24.2-33.2)*,26.4 (23.8-30.1)26.0 (23.1-28.9)
    Total urine volume (mL)774.0 (534.0-1,114.0)*,914.0 (674.0-1,394.0)998.0 (674.0-1,454.0)
    Fruits intake (g/kcal/d)45.9 (0.21-133.0)*90.3 (4.76-208.1)53.8 (0.29-151.6)
    Vegetables intake (g/kcal/d)169.2 (100.7-235.3)160.7 (93.7-237.5)170.3 (127.5-257.6)
    Caffeine intake (mg/kcal/d)171.7 (69.6-299.5)*,292.8 (171.7-398.5)241.0 (181.5-401.0)
    Alcohol intake (g/kcal/d)0.01 (0.00-1.59)*,0.94 (0.00-39.1)0.20 (0.00-35.8)
  • NOTE: Values are medians and interquartile ranges, unless otherwise indicated. The number of CPD and dietary intake are estimated by averaging over the 3 d preceding the 12 h urine collection.

  • * P value for comparison with Whites is <0.05 (except for comparison of total fruits intake among men between native Hawaiians and Whites and between Japanese Americans and Whites, where P = 0.06).

  • Smoking duration is sum of years using filtered cigarettes, nonfiltered cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and chewing tobacco.

  • P value for comparison with Japanese Americans is <0.05 (except for comparison of total vegetable intake among females, where P = 0.06).