Table 2.

Mean cotinine values of current smokers by year, gender, age, deprivation, social class, region, and marital status (univariate analyses)

nMean (SD)Significance test
Year
    19982,377287.00 (171.67)F(5, 6,417) = 2.952, P = 0.012, partial η2 = 0.002
    1999120313.91 (164.02)
    2000576298.31 (168.78)
    20011,946284.26 (171.05)
    20021,052286.13 (184.79)
    2003352316.29 (189.00)
Cigarettes per day
    0-4733103.83 (120.83)F(7, 6,388) = 333.90, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.268
    5-9993198.29 (144.80)
    10-141,526288.33 (152.99)
    15-191,127334.31 (148.49)
    20-241,362368.03 (157.69)
    25-29261375.03 (145.96)
    30-34244418.73 (166.50)
    35+150402.30 (168.63)
Gender
    Men2,687314.96 (181.22)F(1, 6,421) = 102.7, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.016
    Women3,736270.58 (166.94)
Age (y)
    16-20513202.88 (137.53)F(7, 6415) = 64.22, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.065
    21-301,252237.01 (162.00)
    31-401,586299.59 (177.98)
    41-501,237331.20 (175.14)
    51-60971328.09 (175.88)
    61-70529324.29 (168.63)
    71-80274258.82 (151.34)
    81+61172.03 (106.14)
Deprivation*
    Least deprived1,740262.08 (171.61)F(3, 6,419) = 25.66, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.012
    22,364289.21 (177.35)
    31,488304.76 (166.78)
    Most deprived831317.70 (177.56)
Social class
    I207251.19 (157.82)F(5, 6236) = 18.97, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.015
    II1,507262.30 (175.33)
    IIIN902273.77 (171.13)
    IIIM1,916305.56 (174.09)
    IV1,260306.97 (171.66)
    V450316.13 (174.76)
Region
    North East454300.34 (158.93)F(8, 6339) = 4.26, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.005
    North West1,009300.17 (169.67)
    Yorkshire545300.11 (166.68)
    West Midlands635299.75 (172.92)
    East Midlands655300.57 (174.58)
    Eastern712286.62 (187.88)
    London697263.47 (174.30)
    South East961279.29 (175.83)
    South West740279.27 (177.51)
Marital status
    Single2,168248.10 (169.00)F(4, 6416) = 49.76, P < 0.001 partial η2 = 0.030
    Married2,895307.51 (173.07)
    Separated242325.74 (184.37)
    Divorced792323.31 (173.06)
    Widowed324289.64 (167.06)
  • * A composite index comprising of head of household's occupation, access to a car, and housing tenure.

  • I, professional occupations; II, managerial and technical occupations; III(N), skilled occupations nonmanual; III(M), skilled occupations manual; IV, partly skilled occupations; and V, unskilled occupations.