Table 1.

Enterolactone concentration (nmol/L) and baseline characteristics of cases and controls from the MDC cohort, 1991 to 2004

VariablesCases (n = 366)Controls (n = 733)P*P
ENL concentration (nmol/L), median (range)14.5 (0.3-334)16.1 (0.3-115)0.45
Fiber intake (g/d), mean (SD)19.3 (6.9)19.1 (6.1)0.57
Fat intake (E %), mean (SD)38.4 (6.0)38.7 (5.9)0.53
Age (y), mean (SD)57.0 (7.1)56.9 (7.1)0.85
Weight (kg), mean (SD)69.1 (11.3)69.0 (12.1)0.84
Height (cm), mean (SD)164.4 (5.6)163.8 (6.1)0.12
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)25.6 (4.2)25.7 (4.5)0.63
Age at menarche (y), mean (SD)13.6 (1.4)13.6 (1.5)0.85
Age at menopause (y), mean (SD)49.6 (4.8)49.4 (4.3)0.56
Age at birth of first child0.10
    ≤24 y161 (45 %)326 (46 %)0.91
    25-29 y103 (29 %)244 (34 %)0.09
    ≥30 y46 (13 %)82 (11 %)0.49
    No children47 (13 %)65 (9 %)0.04
Educational status0.59
    Elementary136 (37 %)305 (42 %)0.15
    Primary and secondary121 (33 %)226 (31 %)0.47
    Upper secondary25 (7 %)46 (6 %)0.73
    Further education without degree21 (6 %)46 (6 %)0.72
    University degree62 (17 %)106 (15 %)0.29
Smoking status0.21
    Smokers99 (27 %)200 (27 %)0.92
    Ex-smokers116 (32 %)197 (27 %)0.10
    Nonsmokers151 (41 %)335 (46 %)0.16
Alcohol habits0.36
    Zero consumers23 (6 %)55 (8 %)0.46
    <15 g alcohol per d275 (75 %)561 (77 %)0.58
    15-30 g alcohol per d54 (15 %)100 (14 %)0.62
    >30 g alcohol per d14 (4 %)16 (2 %)0.12
Leisure-time physical activity0.38
    Quartile 194 (26 %)183 (25 %)0.81
    Quartile 2100 (27 %)182 (25 %)0.38
    Quartile 390 (25 %)168 (23 %)0.55
    Quartile 481 (22 %)197 (27 %)0.09
Household activities (h/wk)0.04
    0-967 (19 %)101 (14 %)0.06
    10-19142 (39 %)279 (39 %)0.88
    20-29112 (31 %)219 (31 %)0.86
    ≥3039 (11 %)117 (16 %)0.02
Current menopausal hormone therapy use<0.001
    Yes109 (32 %)133 (19 %)
    No229 (68 %)553 (81 %)
  • Abbreviations: ENL, enterolactone; E %, percentage of nonalcohol energy.

  • * P values were computed using Mann-Whitney test for enterolactone concentration, Student t test for other continuous variables, and χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • P values were computed using χ2 test (comparing the specific category with the rest of the variable categories).