Table 2.

Included and excluded studies of high versus low quantities of circulating (plasma or serum) 25(OH)D and colorectal adenomas

Author, yearLocationStudy periodNo. casesNo. and type of controls25(OH)D quantile cut points, means, or medians (ng/mL)Relative risk or OR (95% CI)P for trendAdjusted for
Case-control studies
Peters, 2001*Maryland, United States1994-1996239228 Hospital-basedMedianNot givenAge, sex, season of blood draw
15.21.0
21.40.40 (0.22-0,74)
26.50.67 (0.38-1.19)
31.30.47 (0.26-0.85)
39.40.43 (0.23-0.81)
Levine, 2001California, United States1991-1993473507 Hospital-basedRange0.10Age, sex, race, study site, date of sigmoidoscopy, total calories, BMI, intake of fat and fiber, multivitamin use, calcium:phosphorus ratio
1-15.21.0
15.3-24.50.99 (0.68-1.44)
24.6-34.20.86 (0.59-1.26)
34.3-1150.74 (0.51-1.09)
Peters, 2004United States, 10 centers1993-1999271273 Population-basedRange0.85Age, ethnicity, study center, month of blood draw
6.8-19.21.0
>19.2-24.50.73 (0.41-1.32)
>24.5-30.61.08 (0.61-1.90)
>30.6-36.60.89 (0.49-1.64)
>36.6-72.81.10 (0.60-2.05)
Peters, 2004United States, 10 centers1993-1999123124 Population-basedRange0.0002Age, ethnicity, study center, month of blood draw
6.8-19.21.0
>19.2-24.50.93 (0.39-2.22)
>24.5-30.60.56 (0.22-1.44)
>30.6-36.60.28 (0.11-0.75)
>36.6-72.80.27 (0.11-0.69)
Nested case-control or cohort studies
Platz, 2000United States1989-1996326 Women326 Population-basedMedian1.0Age, indication for endoscopy, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, aspirin, postmenopausal hormone use, red meat, folate, and methionine intake, date of blood draw
16.31.0
22.60.64 (0.41-1.0)
28.30.58 (0.36-0.95)
38.01.04 (0.66-1.66)
Grau, 2003*United States, 6 centers1992-1996174395 Hospital-basedMedian0.12Age, sex, study center, smoking status, alcohol intake, month of blood draw
<29.11.05 (0.85-1.29)
>29.10.71 (0.57-0.89)
Grau, 2003§United States, 6 centers1992-1996376422 Hospital-basedMean0.454Age, sex, study center, alcohol intake, smoking status, month of blood draw
15.71.0
25.40.82 (0.61-1.10)
32.41.03 (0.77-1.39)
43.51.03 (0.77-1.37)
Jacobs, 2007Arizona, United States1995-1999141367 Hospital-basedMeanNot givenAge, BMI, season of blood draw, previous polyps, number of colonoscopies
20.51.0
33.40.97 (0.62-1.52)
Jacobs, 2007Arizona, United States1995-199969201 Hospital-basedMeanNot givenAge, BMI, season of blood draw, previous polyps, number of colonoscopies
17.21.0
33.00.49 (0.25-0.97)
Cross-sectional studies
Miller, 2007North Carolina, United States1998-2000218472 Hospital-basedRange0.27Age, sex, race, month of blood draw
<20.81.0
20.8-33.81.06 (0.45-2.5)
>33.80.80 (0.28-2.28)
Miller, 2007North Carolina, United States1998-2000218472 Hospital-basedRangeNot givenAge, sex, race, month of blood draw
<20.81.0
20.8-33.80.45 (0.19-1.10)
>33.80.31 (0.13-0.74)
Excluded studies
Sieg, 2006Germany2002-2003203239Mean 23.0Data unavailableData unavailableMultivariate adjustment data unavailable
  • * Calcium supplement group.

  • Study subgroup of men.

  • Study subgroup of women.

  • § Control group; data from personal contact.

  • Study subgroup of total calcium <711 mg/d.

  • Study subgroup of total calcium >711 mg/d.