Table 1.

Included studies on high versus low quantiles of vitamin D intake and colorectal adenomas

First author, yearLocationStudy periodNo. casesNo. and type of controlsSource of vitamin D intakeVitamin D quantile ranges, cut points, or median (IU/d)*OR (95% CI)*P for trendAdjusted for
Case-control studies
Boutron, 1996France1985-1990154427 Hospital-basedTotal (dietary and supplements)Cut points1.000.14Age, sex, total energy intake
Men: 120, 156, 200, 212, ≥2120.9 (0.5-1.5)
Women: 96, 128, 160, 256, ≥2561.0 (0.5-1.7)
0.6 (0.3-1.2)
0.7 (0.4-1.3)
Whelan, 1999New York, United States1993-199729395 Hospital-basedSupplementsVitamin D supplement usage0.85 (0.39-1.86)Not givenAge, sex
Peters, 2001Maryland, United States1994-1996239228 Hospital-basedDietaryMedianNot givenAge, sex
791.00
2171.29 (0.77-2.2)
4891.09 (0.64-1.84)
6170.83 (0.48-1.42)
Levine, 2001California, United States1991-1993467500 Hospital-basedTotalRange0.99Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), race, clinic, sigmoidoscopy date, total fiber, saturated fat intake, multivitamin use
1.0-1481.00
148-2661.02 (0.69-1.51)
266-5310.95 (0.63-1.43)
531-18701.11 (0.67-1.55)
Boyapati, 2003North Carolina, United States1995-1997177228 Hospital-basedTotalRange0.19Age, sex, total energy intake
Men: 0-1751.00
176-3561.10 (0.66-1.81)
357-23020.69 (0.41-1.18)
Women: 0-158
159-433
434-1656
Cohort and nested case-control studies
Kampman, 1994United States1986-19903319,159 Population-basedTotalRange0.32Age, BMI, alcohol intake, family history of colon cancer, indications for endoscopy, history of previous endoscopy, total energy, fiber, saturated fat, and folate intake
4-1751.00
175-2640.96
264-4020.83
402-6480.68
648-50781.29 (0.87-1.93)
Martinez, 2002Arizona, United StatesCross-sectional639665 Population-basedDietary supplements totalRange0.91Age, sex, number of colonoscopies, number of polyps at baseline, history of prior polyps, aspirin use, fiber, calcium intake
<861.00
86-1741.01 (0.72-1.43)
175-4550.88 (0.62-1.25)
>4551.02 (0.71-1.47)
Lieberman, 2003United States1994-1997312 (97% men)1,359 Hospital-basedDietaryRangeNot givenAge, medical history, total energy intake
<179.51.00
179.5-270.21.14 (0.77-1.69)
270.3-417.70.98 (0.65-1.47)Not adjusted for sex but cohort (97% men)
417.8-644.90.69 (0.45-1.07)
>644.90.61 (0.39-0.97)
Kesse, 2005§France1993-19975164,804 population-basedTotalRange0.72BMI, alcohol intake, education, current smoking status, family history of colon cancer, physical activity, total energy intake
<69.21.00
69.2-94.81.49, (1.16-1.91)
94.8-130.41.25 (0.96-1.62)
>130.41.15 (0.88-1.49)
Hartman, 2005United States 8 clinical centers1991-19947541,151 Hospital-basedDietary supplements totalRange0.03Age, sex, intervention group, site, interaction between sex and intervention group, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory disease use, total energy intake
<1341.0
134.1-1961.22 (0.91-1.65)
196.1-2820.87 (0.65-1.18)
282.1-4680.77 (0.56-1.02)
>4680.84 (0.62-1.13)
Jacobs, 2007Arizona, United States4 y360804 Hospital-basedTotalMedian0.78Age, energy intake, number of colonoscopies, previous polyps
45.51.00
125.50.95 (0.65-1.37)
257.00.95 (0.64-1.39)
Jacobs, 2007§Arizona, United States4 y144388 Hospital-basedTotalMedian0.28Age, energy intake, number of colonoscopies, previous polyps
30.51.00
107.60.90 (0.51-1.60)
234.20.71 (0.38-1.32)
Oh, 2007United States1980-20022,747 women48,115 Population-basedTotalMedian0.07Age, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, family history of colon cancer, history of previous endoscopy, physical activity, menopausal status and hormone use, aspirin use, total energy, fiber, red meat, folate, phosphorous, calcium, and retinol intake
1351.00
2260.81 (0.71, 0.92)
3120.79 (0.68, 0.93)
4190.75 (0.62-0.90)
6010.79 (0.63-0.99)
  • * Average of men and women unless otherwise noted.

  • Data more detailed than published study available through personal contact.

  • Study subgroup of men.

  • § Study subgroup of women.