Table 2.

Characteristics of the study sample

Patients150
Mean age (range), y48 (28-93)
Ethnicity, %
    Caucasian123 (82)
    African American20 (13)
    Hispanic5 (3)
    Asian2 (1)
Menopausal status, %
    Premenopausal73 (49)
    Perimenopausal8 (5)
    Postmenopausal69 (46)
Oral contraceptive use (premenopausal)18/73 (38)
Hormone replacement (peri- and post-menopausal)25/77 (32)
Risk groups
    Breast cancer patients67 (45)
        Breasts ipsilateral to a breast cancer65*
            Ductal carcinoma in situ only6
            Infiltrating ductal carcinoma50
            Infiltrating lobular carcinoma7
            Medullary carcinoma1
            Metaplastic carcinoma1
            Any associated DCIS53 (82)
        Breasts contralateral to a breast cancer62
    Unaffected risk assessed patients83 (55)
        History of atypical ductal hyperplasia4 (5)
        BRCA gene mutation5 (6)
        Lower risk by all models31 (37)
        High risk by Gail only§12 (15)
        High risk by Claus or BRCAPRO only29 (35)
        High risk by both Gail and a family history model11 (13)
  • * Three bilateral cancers were included; four were excluded because cancer was excised before enrollment; and one was excluded due to inability to cannulate duct.

  • Three bilateral cancer patients had no contralateral lavage; two were excluded due to inability to cannulate duct.

  • Five-year Gail, Claus, and BRCAPRO risk less than twice the age- and race-matched general population risk.

  • § High risk is defined as 5-y model probability greater than or equal to twice the age- and race-matched general population risk.