Table 2.

ORs for risk of obesity according to intake of dietary constituents and biomarkers

ItemQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5TrendPtrend
OR dietary sugars per quintile10.95 (0.58-1.54)0.72 (0.44-1.16)0.76 (0.47-1.22)0.89 (0.54-1.43)0.95 (0.86-1.06)0.400
OR dietary sucrose/fructose ratio per quintile11.13 (0.69-1.84)1.27 (0.79-2.08)1.16 (0.72-1.88)0.77 (0.48-1.25)0.95 (0.85-1.05)0.343
OR urinary sugars per quintile11.01 (0.66-1.56)1.26 (0.82-1.95)1.07 (0.69-1.65)1.20 (0.76-1.89)1.04 (0.94-1.15)0.413
OR urinary sucrose excretion per quintile11.28 (0.84-1.96)1.38 (0.90-2.10)1.35 (0.87-2.07)1.82 (1.16-2.85)*1.13 (1.02-1.25)0.016
OR urinary fructose per quintile10.78 (0.50-1.13)0.66 (0.43-1.03)0.85 (0.55-1.32)0.53 (0.33-0.86)*0.90 (0.81-0.99)0.037
OR urinary sucrose/fructose ratio per quintile11.29 (0.82-2.03)1.60 (1.02-2.51)2.27 (1.44-3.59)2.44 (1.54-3.86)1.26 (1.14-1.40)<0.001
OR plasma vitamin C per quintile10.96 (0.60-1.53)0.64 (0.41-1.01)0.51 (0.32-0.79)0.32 (0.20-0.51)0.75 (0.67-0.83)<0.001
OR dietary vitamin C per quintile11.01 (0.63-1.63)0.97 (0.59-1.58)1.25 (0.77-2.02)1.71 (1.06-2.76)§1.14 (1.02-1.27)0.017
  • NOTE: ORs and 95% CI for a body weight >30 kg/m2 compared with <25 kg/m2 according to quintile of dietary intake or excretion and trend per quintile adjusted for sex and 5-y age band.

  • * P = 0.009 compared with quintile 1.

  • P < 0.001 compared with quintile 1.

  • P = 0.003 compared with quintile 1.

  • § P = 0.027 compared with quintile 1.