Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of randomized study participants (N = 40)

CharacteristicsBotanical supplement (n = 15)Dietary changes (n = 10)Placebo
All (N = 40)
n = 15*n = 10
Age (y)34.7 (6.7)35.1 (7.2)37.3 (6.1)35.8 (6.9)35.8 (6.5)
Race, n (%)
    White14 (93.3)9 (90.0)12 (80.0)8 (80.0)35 (87.5)
    American Indian/Alaska Native001 (6.7)01 (2.5)
    Asian1 (6.7)01 (6.7)1 (10.0)2 (5.0)
    Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander001 (6.7)1 (10.0)1 (2.5)
    Other01 (10.0)001 (2.5)
BMI (kg/m2)23.0 (2.8)22.5 (2.9)23.0 (2.3)22.4 (2.4)22.9 (2.6)
Annual household income >$50K, n (%)10 (66.7)5 (50.0)11 (73.3)7 (70.0)26 (65.0)
Ever used vitamins, herbs, or nutritional supplements, n (%)12 (85.7)8 (80.0)9 (60.0)5 (50.0)29 (74.4)
Ever seen CAM provider, n (%)13 (86.7)9 (90.0)13 (86.7)9 (90.0)35 (87.5)
Daily dietary intake
    Calories (kcal)1,866.4 (885.4)1,686.5 (505.5)1,787.7 (729.6)1,696.7 (491.8)1,790.0 (727.9)
    Protein (g)78.2 (38.8)67.2 (21.9)73.9 (35.1)67.4 (23.8)73.7 (33.2)
    Carbohydrate (g)237.7 (112.3)226.3 (90.2)227.2 (86.7)209.1 (48.2)230.7 (95.1)
    Fat (g)65.8 (36.5)59.5 (18.0)63.4 (28.7)63.8 (21.8)63.3 (29.0)
    Fiber (g)21.7 (10.3)25.2 (16.7)21.3 (7.4)20.1 (5.3)22.4 (11.2)
    Vegetables (1/2 cup servings)3.1 (1.3)3.3 (2.2)3.2 (1.7)2.9 (1.3)3.2 (1.7)
    Water (cups)5.2 (2.6)6.3 (3.1)5.6 (2.8)5.2 (2.5)5.6 (2.8)
    Caffeine (mg)122.4 (88.8)233.1 (372.5)170.8 (131.8)147.1 (142.7)169.4 (209.4)
    Alcohol (g)9.1 (7.5)5.3 (5.8)9.3 (10.4)9.2 (7.2)8.2 (8.4)
    Cooked greens (1/2 cup servings)0.3 (0.4)0.4 (0.7)0.3 (0.6)0.4 (0.7)0.4 (0.5)
Duration of menstrual cycle 1 (days)31.1 (8.2)29.1 (4.6)27.4 (3.4)26.6 (3.8)29.3 (6.1)
  • NOTE: Participant characteristics did not differ significantly between groups. Data shown are mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated.

    Abbreviations: CAM, complementary and alternative medicine; BMI, body mass index.

  • * Includes all women randomized to placebo (five of these women were unwilling to be randomized to the dietary changes arm).

  • Includes women who were willing to be randomized to all three arms.

  • Includes one Hispanic woman in the placebo arm.