Table 4.

Levels of cotinine in smokers and smokeless tobacco users stratified by gender, age, and race

Cotinine
(nmol/mL urine)
(nmol/mg creatinine)
GroupNAge, y (mean ± SD)Geometric mean (95% CI)PGeometric mean (95% CI)P
Smokers23252.3 ± 11.721.7 (19.7-23.9)*<0.000122.2 (20.5-24.0)0.0003
Smokeless tobacco users18032.9 ± 6.7642.1 (37.9-46.8)28.1 (25.4-31.2)§
Male smokers16254.6 ± 11.121.8 (19.3-24.7)<0.000120.8 (18.9-22.8)<0.0001
Male smokeless tobacco users18032.9 ± 6.7642.1 (37.9-46.8)28.1 (25.4-31.2)
Younger smokers6137.7 ± 6.8528.3 (24.0-33.3)0.000322.7 (19.4-26.4)0.08
Younger smokeless tobacco users17031.9 ± 5.4241.6 (37.3-46.5)27.1 (24.4-30.1)
White smokers21452.4 ± 11.921.7 (19.6-24.0)<0.000122.6 (20.9-24.6)0.0001
White smokeless tobacco users17233.0 ± 6.8243.6 (39.1-48.5)29.2 (26.4-32.4)
Younger male smokers3138.6 ± 6.1430.2 (23.7-38.5)0.0220.6 (16.8-25.2)0.04
Younger male smokeless tobacco users17031.9 ± 5.4241.6 (37.3-46.5)27.1 (24.4-30.1)
Younger white male smokers2838.5 ± 6.2430.1 (22.9-39.5)0.0221.2 (17.0-26.5)0.04
Younger white male smokeless tobacco users16432.0 ± 5.4542.8 (38.4-47.9)28.1 (25.4-31.2)
  • * Arithmetic mean: 27.4 ± 17.5.

  • Arithmetic mean: 26.3 ± 16.8.

  • Arithmetic mean: 52.1 ± 31.5.

  • § Arithmetic mean: 34.9 ± 22.3.

  • <45 yrs old.