Table 3.

Levels of total NNAL and creatinine in smokers and smokeless tobacco users stratified by gender, age, and race

Total NNAL
Creatinine*
(pmol/mL urine)
(pmol/mg creatinine)
(mg/mL urine)
GroupNAge, y (mean ± SD)Geometric mean (95% CI)PGeometric mean (95% CI)PGeometric mean (95% CI)P
Smokers42049.5 ± 12.92.18 (2.03-2.35)<0.00012.33 (2.19-2.47)0.170.94 (0.88-1.00)<0.0001
Smokeless tobacco users18232.9 ± 6.763.79 (3.40-4.21)§2.54 (2.28-2.82)1.49 (1.39-1.61)
Male smokers26051.0 ± 13.22.17 (1.97-2.38)<0.00012.27 (2.11-2.45)0.100.95 (0.87-1.04)<0.0001
Male smokeless tobacco users18232.9 ± 6.763.79 (3.40-4.21)2.54 (2.28-2.82)1.49 (1.39-1.61)
Younger smokers14835.9 ± 8.022.31 (2.03-2.64)<0.00012.12 (1.91-2.36)0.121.08 (0.97-1.20)<0.0001
Younger smokeless tobacco users17131.9 ± 5.423.67 (3.29-4.10)2.39 (2.15-2.65)1.54 (1.42-1.66)
White smokers33150.2 ± 13.22.08 (1.91-2.26)<0.00012.39 (2.23-2.56)0.290.87 (0.81-0.93)<0.0001
White smokeless tobacco users17433.0 ± 6.823.81 (3.41-4.24)2.56 (2.30-2.86)1.48 (1.38-1.60)
Younger male smokers7935.6 ± 8.242.43 (2.02-2.92)<0.00012.20 (1.90-2.54)0.371.10 (0.94-1.28)0.0001
Younger male smokeless tobacco users17131.9 ± 5.423.67 (3.29-4.10)2.39 (2.15-2.65)1.54 (1.42-1.66)
Younger white male smokers6035.0 ± 8.322.25 (1.79-2.83)<0.00012.19 (1.82-2.62)0.321.02 (0.84-1.23)0.0002
Younger white male smokeless tobacco users16532.0 ± 5.453.70 (3.31-4.13)2.43 (2.18-2.70)1.52 (1.41-1.65)
  • * Data was missing for one subject.

  • Arithmetic mean: 2.84 ± 2.17.

  • Arithmetic mean: 2.82 ± 1.99.

  • § Arithmetic mean: 4.86 ± 3.76.

  • Arithmetic mean: 3.29 ± 2.63.

  • <45 yrs old.