Table 2.

Total NNAL and cotinine in the urine of smokers (n = 420) and smokeless tobacco users (n = 182)

Geometric mean (95% CI)
Total NNAL
Cotinine
pmol/mLpmol/mg creatininenmol/mLnmol/mg creatinine
Smokers
    Study 12.12 (1.88-2.38)2.01 (1.79-2.25)25.0 (22.2-28.1)23.7 (21.3-26.4)
    Study 22.06 (1.81-2.34)2.24 (2.01-2.49)19.0 (16.4-22.1)20.8 (18.5-23.3)
    Study 32.31 (2.05-2.61)2.62 (2.39-2.87)
    Pooled (studies 1-3)2.18 (2.03-2.35)2.33 (2.19-2.47)21.7 (19.7-23.9)22.2 (20.5-24.0)
Smokeless tobacco users
    Study 43.52 (3.05-4.07)2.35 (2.05-2.70)50.6 (44.1-58.1)33.8 (29.4-38.8)
    Study 53.81 (3.09-4.69)2.50 (2.04-3.07)38.8 (31.6-47.7)25.5 (21.2-30.6)
    Study 64.30 (3.42-5.42)2.98 (2.31-3.84)32.9 (26.3-41.2)22.5 (17.8-28.4)
    Pooled (studies 4-6)3.79 (3.40-4.21)2.54 (2.28-2.82)42.1 (37.9-46.8)28.1 (25.4-31.2)