Table 3.

Comparison of toenail biomarkers by race

BiomarkerRacenMean (SD)P
Toenail nicotineAfrican-American525.77 (7.71)0.504
White515.21 (4.92)
Toenail cotinineAfrican-American520.79 (0.88)0.351
White510.58 (0.67)
Toenail NNALAfrican-American330.14 (0.17)0.019
White170.27 (0.28)