Table 1.

Characteristics of sample by case/control status

Cases (N = 1,459)Controls (N = 1,556)P
Age [mean ± SD (y)]47.9 ± 8.047.2 ± 8.80.03
Education level (%)0.04
    No formal education45
    Elementary school98
    Middle and high school8383
    College and higher54
Family history of breast cancer (%)420.05
Age at menarche (y)14.5 ± 1.614.7 ± 1.7<0.01
Nulliparous (%)540.12
Age at first live birth (%)<0.01
    <2055
    20-242224
    25-295155
    30-341814
    ≥3543
Menopausal status (%)65640.35
Personal history of fibroadenoma (%)105<0.001
WHR0.81 ± 0.060.80 ± 0.06<0.01
BMI (kg/m2)23.5 ± 3.523.0 ± 2.5<0.01
Physical activity within last 10 y (%)1925<0.01
Total energy intake [mean ± SD (kcal)]1,847 ± 4821,822 ± 4810.13
Total fat intake [mean ± SD (g/d)]36.4 ± 17.435.3 ± 16.20.08
Saturated fat intake [mean ± SD (g/d)]11.2 ± 5.810.7 ± 5.10.02
Total fiber intake [mean ± SD (g/d)]10.1 ± 4.310.2 ± 4.90.33
Red meat intake [mean ± SD (g/d)]43.9 ± 32.238.8 ± 26.7<0.001
Vegetable intake [mean ± SD (g/d)]173.4 ± 108.3171.7 ± 110.60.57
Fowl intake [mean ± SD (g/d)]15.8 ± 20.513.9 ± 15.8<0.01
Fish intake [mean ± SD (g/d)]37.5 ± 39.832.1 ± 31.7<0.001
Legume intake [mean ± SD (g/d)]68.2 ± 48.770.3 ± 58.10.57
Fruit intake [mean ± SD (g/d)]214.5 ± 161.6211.3 ± 161.20.59