Table 2.

Chemopreventive agents with potential to modulate mTOR signaling

AgentChemopreventive activityReferences
DNA methylation inhibitors (activate PTEN gene transcription)
    5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (decitabine)Intestine, lung, prostate(4)
    Tea polyphenols (epigallocatechin gallate, polyphenon E)Colon, prostate, esophagus, bladder, forestomach, liver, lung, breast, small intestine, skin(155-160)
    CatechinIntestines, skin(161-163)
    Soy isoflavones (genistein)Breast, prostate, skin, stomach(164-167)
    Flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin)Lung, skin(161)
    Caffeic acidForestomach(168)
    Chlorogenic acidIntestines, lung, skin(168)
    Sodium seleniteColon, esophagus, liver, breast, pancreas, stomach(169)
    Benzyl selenocyanateColon, forestomach, breast(169)
    1,4-Phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanateColon, lung, breast(169)
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (activate PTEN gene transcription)
    SulforaphaneColon, forestomach, breast(170-173)
    Sodium butyrate, phenylbutyrateColon (aberrant crypts)(4, 174)
    Diallyl sulfideColon, esophagus, forestomach, liver, lung, breast, skin, thyroid(4, 175, 176)
    Phenethyl isothiocyanateEsophagus, forestomach, lung, breast, pancreas(177, 178)
    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acidBreast, lung(4, 179, 180)
    Valproic acidIntestine(4, 181)
Histone acetyltransferase inhibitors (activate PTEN gene transcription)
    CurcuminColon, duodenum, forestomach, breast, skin, tongue(182, 183)
Ornithine decarboxylase inhibitors (inhibit protein kinase–mediated cell proliferation)
    2-DifluoromethylornithineColon, bladder, skin(156, 157)
    Retinoids (fenretinide)Breast, skin, head and neck, bladder, ovary, colon(156, 157)
PI3K/AKT inhibitors
    CelecoxibColon, bladder, skin, lung, esophagus, head and neck, breast, prostate(120-122, 157)
    CurcuminColon, duodenum, forestomach, breast, skin, tongue(160, 182-184)
    DeguelinLung, breast, colon(119, 185, 186)
    Indole-3-carbinol, diindolylmethaneBreast(116, 117)
    ResveratrolColon, prostate, breast(187-192)
    RosiglitazoneBreast, prostate, colon(1, 125)
    Soy isoflavones (genistein)Breast, prostate, colon, skin, stomach(164-167)
    Tea polyphenols (epigallocatechin gallate, polyphenon E)Colon, prostate, esophagus, bladder, head and neck, forestomach, liver, lung, breast, small intestine, skin(155-160)
Epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (inhibit protein kinase–mediated cell proliferation)
    Tyrosine kinase specific inhibitors (erlotinib, gefitinib, EKB569)Lung, colon, head and neck, breast(193-195)
    CurcuminColon, duodenum, forestomach, breast, skin, tongue(111, 160, 182, 183)
    ResveratrolColon, prostate, breast(160, 187-192, 196)
    mTOR inhibition
    CurcuminColon, duodenum, forestomach, breast, skin, tongue(182, 183)
AMPK activators (inhibit AKT-driven blockade of TSC1/TSC2 tumor suppressors)
    ResveratrolColon, prostate, breast(124, 160, 187-192, 196)
    MetforminBreast, pancreas(45, 127, 128, 197)
    RosiglitazoneBreast, prostate, colon(1, 125)