Table 1.

Alterations upstream and downstream of mTOR in precancerous human tissues

TargetPI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway alterationReference
EndometriumPTEN mutation(70, 79)
LungPI3K catalytic subunit amplification, AKT activation, eIF-4E overexpression(76-78, 81, 148)
Head and neckAKT activation, eIF-4E overexpression(91, 149, 150)
Esophagus (Barrett's)AKT activation(151)
Oral cavityeIF-4E overexpression(152)
ColonAKT overexpression; eIF-4E overexpression(86-88)
ProstateAKT activation and overexpression; PTEN loss (late)(70, 75-78)
CervixPTEN promoter Methylation(74)
Skin (melanoma)AKT activation, HIF-1α expression(89, 90, 153)
KidneyTSC loss, HIF-1α expression(147)
LeukemiaPTEN loss in hematopoietic stem cells(154)
BreastAKT activation and overexpression, mTOR activation, S6 activation, PTEN loss (late)(72)
TesticlesPTEN loss (late)(73)