Table 1.

Baseline characteristics (means and proportions) by categories of supplemental vitamin E use and dietary α- and γ-tocopherol intakes in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

Supplemental vitamin E (IU/d)*
Quintiles of dietary α-tocopherol (mg/d)
Quintiles of dietary γ-tocopherol (mg/d)
0>0-399400-799≥8001 (<5.5)3 (6.5-7.5)5 (>8.8)1 (<9.7)3 (12.4-14.9)5 (>18.2)
Participants, no.115,788110,46053,85215,24458,89858,89858,89859,00259,00259,002
Age, y62.161.962.762.461.962.162.562.262.062.3
Body mass index, kg/m227.627.
Physical activity, times per week2.392.592.922.962.252.622.852.742.602.44
Race, %
Smoking status, %
Education, % ≥college degree42.749.251.351.541.048.350.449.448.143.1
Family history of prostate cancer, % yes8.
Personal history of diabetes, % yes11.19.49.710.87.99.912.88.69.712.8
Screening history, % yes§
Multivitamin use, % yes091.774.972.648.952.153.653.552.548.4
Daily dietary intake**
    Total energy, kcal2,0222,0161,9902,0221,9352,0152,0951,9832,0062,069
    Red meat, g76.270.663.462.067.275.763.952.175.380.2
    Fish, g19.520.722.323.413.821.325.717.720.923.0
    Tomatoes, pyramid servings0.600.630.680.720.420.640.820.600.650.62
    α-Linolenic acid, g1.321.301.291.280.951.341.560.901.321.68
    Calcium, mg††7579561,0881,171810929977975928823
    Vitamin C, mg††1804508311,128372450522519450378
    β-Carotene, μg††3,5664,6955,9136,5952,8274,4706,4734,7094,5914,425
    Selenium, μg††961111131139111011197109107
  • * Includes vitamin E obtained from multivitamins and single supplements: 1 IU = 0.45 mg α-tocopherol equivalents.

  • Defined as physical activity for at least 20 min that caused increases in breathing or heart rate, or worked up a sweat.

  • Includes Hispanics, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaskan natives.

  • § Available for individuals (n = 176,876) who completed the supplemental questionnaire that inquired about screening history.

  • PSA blood test within 3 y before baseline.

  • DRE within 3 y before baseline.

  • ** Adjusted for total energy intake.

  • †† Includes intakes from diet and supplements.