Table 2.

Physical activity levels and concentrations of circulating estradiol and testosterone

No.Increasing physical activity levels
P for association% Difference, level 4/level 1 (95% CI)
1 (0 to <18.5 MET h/wk)2 (18.5 to <43.9 MET h/wk)3 (43.9 to <86.8 MET h/wk)4 (>86.8 MET h/wk)
Estradiol (pmol/L)
    Age adjusted2,06017.2 (16.5-17.9)15.3 (14.6-15.9)15.1 (14.2-16.0)15.4 (14.1-16.9)<0.001
    Age and BMI adjusted2,06016.9 (16.3-17.5)15.4 (14.8-16.0)15.5 (14.7-16.4)15.5 (14.2-16.8)0.03
    Age and covariate adjusted*1,80316.8 (16.0-17.7)15.4 (14.5-16.3)15.9 (14.9-17.0)15.9 (14.4-17.4)0.02−6% (−12 to 0)
Testosterone (nmol/L × 10−1)
    Age adjusted1,9407.53 (7.22-7.84)6.75 (6.45-7.06)6.38 (5.99-6.78)6.26 (5.69-6.89)<0.001
    Age and BMI adjusted1,9407.55 (7.17-7.77)6.77 (6.47-7.08)6.46 (6.07-6.87)6.26 (5.70-6.88)<0.001
    Age and covariate adjusted*1,7127.94 (7.49-8.42)7.13 (6.70-7.60)7.00 (6.49-7.55)6.46 (5.81-7.18)<0.001−19% (−27 to −9)
SHBG (nmol/L)
    Age adjusted2,06641.9 (41.3-43.8)40.9 (39.3-42.0)42.1 (40.1-44.2)47.0 (43.6-50.7)0.01
    Age and BMI adjusted2,06642.5 (41.3-43.8)40.7 (39.3-42.0)41.2 (39.3-43.1)47.2 (44.0-50.6)0.001
    Age and covariate adjusted*1,82243.5 (41.6-45.4)41.4 (39.6-43.4)42.3 (39.9-44.7)46.7 (43.2-50.5)0.02+7% (−1 to +16)
Androstenedione (nmol/L)
    Age adjusted1,4903.23 (3.04-3.37)3.12 (2.96-3.25)3.07 (2.87-3.27)3.20 (2.90-3.54)0.44
    Age and BMI adjusted1,4903.23 (3.10-3.36)3.10 (2.97-3.25)3.08 (2.89-3.29)3.20 (2.90-3.54)0.54
    Age and covariate adjusted*1,3203.24 (3.05-3.44)3.09 (2.86-3.30)3.18 (2.94-3.44)3.08 (2.76-3.45)0.54−5% (−15 to +9)
17OHP (nmol/L)
    Age adjusted1,9801.09 (1.05-1.13)1.05 (1.02-1.09)1.04 (0.99-1.09)0.98 (0.91-1.06)0.07
    Age and BMI adjusted1,9801.09 (1.05-1.12)1.06 (1.02-1.09)1.04 (0.99-1.09)0.98 (0.91-1.06)0.09
    Age and covariate adjusted*1,7481.11 (1.06-1.17)1.08 (1.03-1.14)1.07 (1.00-1.13)1.01 (0.92-1.10)0.16−9% (−17 to −1)
Estrone (pmol/L)
    Age adjusted1,15678.7 (75.3-82.4)72.3 (68.8-75.9)74.9 (70.2-79.9)73.9 (66.3-82.3)0.09
    Age and BMI adjusted1,15677.9 (74.6-81.2)72.6 (69.2-76.1)76.4 (71.8-81.4)73.5 (66.2-81.5)0.17
    Age and covariate adjusted*1,02376.6 (71.9-81.5)71.1 (66.5-76.0)75.3 (69.7-81.4)73.3 (65.3-82.3)0.18−4% (−15 to +8)
Estradiol/SHBG (/10)
    Age adjusted2,03041.1 (38.9-43.4)37.2 (35.1-39.5)35.8 (32.9-38.9)33.2 (29.2-37.6)0.003
    Age and BMI adjusted2,03039.8 (38.0-47.2)37.7 (35.8-41.7)37.6 (35.0-40.4)33.3 (29.8-37.1)0.03
    Age and covariate adjusted*1,79338.8 (36.3-41.5)37.1 (34.5-39.9)37.5 (34.4-40.9)34.3 (30.4-38.8)0.25−12% (−22 to 0)
Testosterone/SHBG (×100)
    Age adjusted1,9311.82 (1.73-1.96)1.65 (1.56-1.74)1.52 (1.41-1.65)1.35 (1.19-1.52)<0.001
    Age and BMI adjusted1,9311.77 (1.69-1.84)1.66 (1.58-1.75)1.58 (1.47-1.71)1.34 (1.20-1.50)<0.001
    Age and covariate adjusted*1,7041.84 (1.71-1.97)1.71 (1.59-1.84)1.67 (1.52-1.82)1.39 (1.23-1.59)0.001−26% (−34 to −13)
  • Note: Geometric mean endogenous hormone and SHBG levels and their 95% CI, age adjusted, age and BMI adjusted, and age, BMI, and covariates adjusted in 2,082 postmenopausal women ages 55 to 81 y not on HRT in the EPIC-Norfolk (1997-2000) according to physical activity levels, and eβ of highest versus lowest physical activity level calculated from the exponential of the β coefficient on the logged scale.

  • * Covariates were age, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, parity, age at menarche, age at menopause, past oral contraceptive use, and past HRT use.