Table 3.

Relative risk of prostate cancer in association with estimated intake of dairy products estimated as OR with 95% CI, the Swedish CAPS I study

Dietary intakeFrequency/mean (interquartile range)Controls (n)Cases, NOR* (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
All milk glasses/dNever1341641.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
>0 to <37239771.12 (0.87-1.43)1.16 (0.89-1.51)
≥32673481.02 (0.76-1.36)1.18 (0.85-1.66)
P for linear trend0.850.37
Low-fat milk glasses/dNever8451,0221.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
>0 to <32173531.33 (1.09-1.62)1.34 (1.08-1.65)
≥3621141.43 (1.03-1.98)1.73 (1.16-2.39)
P for linear trend0.0010.0001
High-fat milk glasses/dNever8701,1491.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
>0 to <31972771.11 (0.90-1.36)1.12 (0.90-1.39)
≥357630.88 (0.61-1.28)0.91 (0.61-1.37)
P for linear trend0.830.77
All dairy products g/d·MJ20 (0-32)2813961.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
43 (33-53)2813800.96 (0.77-1.20)1.00 (0.78-1.27)
65 (54-78)2813620.92 (0.74-1.15)0.98 (0.74-1.29)
108 (79-321)2813510.91 (0.73-1.13)1.01 (0.72-1.43)
P for linear trend0.350.98
Products§ high in lactose (>3 g/100 g), g/d·MJ18 (0-30)2813981.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
40 (30-50)2813620.91 (0.73-1.13)0.94 (0.75-1.20)
62 (51-75)2813710.94 (0.76-1.18)1.03 (0.79-1.35)
106 (76-317)2813580.92 (0.74-1.15)1.05 (0.76-1.46)
P for linear trend0.550.68
Products low in lactose (<3 g/100 g), g/d·MJ1 (0-2)2813211.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
3 (2-3)2814111.26 (1.01-1.57)1.23 (0.98-1.55)
4 (4-5)2814051.23 (0.98-1.53)1.21 (0.96-1.53)
7 (5-21)2813521.04 (0.83-1.31)1.08 (0.84-1.38)
P for linear trend0.830.63
  • * Adjusted for age (in 5-y categories) and total energy intake.

  • Adjusted for age (in 5-y categories), total energy intake, dietary intake of fruit, vegetables, saturated fat, alcohol, protein, zinc, vitamin C, selenium, phosphorus, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexenoic acid.

  • Milk, yoghurt/soured milk, cheese, cottage cheese, crème fraîche, and high- and low-fat cream.

  • § Milk, yoghurt/soured milk, chocolate, ice cream, and low-fat cream (12% fat).

  • Cheese, cottage cheese, melted cheese, crème fraîche, and high-fat cream (40% fat).