Table 4.

RRs with 95% CIs for colorectal cancer by quartile of energy-adjusted intake of fruit, vegetable, and bean dietary fiber in the JACC Study, 1988 to 1997 (n = 43,115)

Quartiles of energy-adjusted intake of fruit, vegetable, or bean dietary fiber
Ptrend
1234
Fruit fiber (g/day)0.4 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.41.7 ± 0.52.2 ± 0.3
Person-years81,81782,54582,84080,072
Colorectal cancer
    Number of cancer cases90103128122
    Age- and sex-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.11 (0.84-1.47)1.36 (1.04-1.79)1.29 (0.98-1.69)0.029
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.001.05 (0.78-1.40)1.23 (0.92-1.64)1.06 (0.78-1.43)0.55
Colon cancer
    Number of cancer cases57748278
    Age- and sex-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.26 (0.89-1.77)1.38 (0.98-1.93)1.29 (0.92-1.81)0.14
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.001.20 (0.84-1.71)1.26 (0.88-1.81)1.06 (0.73-1.54)0.83
Rectal cancer
    Number of cancer cases32264341
    Age- and sex-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.79 (0.47-1.32)1.29 (0.82-2.04)1.23 (0.77-1.96)0.14
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.000.70 (0.42-1.19)1.06 (0.65-1.73)0.92 (0.55-1.54)0.84
Vegetable fiber (g/day)2.0 ± 0.73.1 ± 0.74.0 ± 0.85.1 ± 1.1
Person-years79,62882,18682,65982,800
Colorectal cancer
    Number of cancer cases10495112132
    Age- and sex-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.83 (0.63-1.09)0.90 (0.69-1.18)0.94 (0.72-1.22)0.87
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.000.81 (0.60-1.08)0.86 (0.64-1.16)0.89 (0.65-1.24)0.65
Colon cancer
    Number of cancer cases76626885
    Age- and sex-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.74 (0.53-1.03)0.74 (0.53-1.03)0.81 (0.60-1.12)0.26
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.000.71 (0.50-1.01)0.69 (0.48-0.99)0.74 (0.50-1.11)0.17
Rectal cancer
    Number of cancer cases23294347
    Age- and sex-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.15 (0.66-1.98)1.59 (0.96-2.64)1.56 (0.94-2.59)0.043
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.001.16 (0.66-2.04)1.64 (0.94-2.88)1.68 (0.91-3.11)0.060
Bean fiber (g/day)0.2 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.10.7 ± 0.21.4 ± 0.6
Person-years78,61182,82883,16682,669
Colorectal cancer
    Number of cancer cases103104115121
    Age- and sex-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.87 (0.67-1.15)0.88 (0.67-1.15)0.83 (0.63-1.08)0.19
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.000.84 (0.64-1.11)0.83 (0.63-1.10)0.74 (0.55-0.99)0.055
Colon cancer
    Number of cancer cases72677577
    Age- and sex-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.80 (0.58-1.12)0.81 (0.59-1.12)0.73 (0.53-1.01)0.081
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.000.79 (0.56-1.12)0.79 (0.56-1.11)0.67 (0.47-0.95)0.037
Rectal cancer
    Number of cancer cases30353740
    Age- and sex-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.01 (0.62-1.65)0.98 (0.60-1.60)0.97 (0.60-1.57)0.87
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.000.92 (0.56-1.52)0.87 (0.52-1.45)0.81 (0.48-1.37)0.42
  • NOTE: Plus-minus values are means ± SD.

  • * The RRs were adjusted for age (as a continuous variable), sex, area (Hokkaido and Tohoku, Kanto, Chubu, Kinki, Chugoku, or Kyushu), educational level (attended school until the age of ≤15, 16-18, or ≥19 years), family history of colorectal cancer in parents and/or siblings (yes or no), alcohol consumption [never drink, ex-drinkers, or current drinkers who consume <2 or ≥2 Japanese drinks (<46 or ≥46 g of ethanol) per day for men, and never drink, ex-drinkers, or current drinkers for women], smoking (never smoke, ex-smokers, or current smokers), BMI (<20.0, 20.0-24.9, or ≥25.0 kg/m2), daily walking habits (≤30 or >30 min/day), exercise (seldom or never, or 1-2, 3-4, or ≥5 h a week), sedentary work (yes or no), consumption of beef (almost never, 1-2 times a month, 1-2 times a week, ≥3 times a week) and pork (almost never, 1-2 times a month, 1-2 times a week, ≥3 times a week), energy intake (as a continuous variable), and energy-adjusted intakes of folate, calcium, and vitamin D (sex-specific quartile for each).