Table 3.

Association between complete, incomplete and mixed types of intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori virulence and smoking status (multinomial logistic regression analysis)

Normal stomach/chronic nonatrophic gastritis
Intestinal metaplasia
n (%)Complete
Incomplete
Mixed
n (%)OR (95% CI)*n (%)OR (95% CI)*n (%)OR (95% CI)*
H. pylori infecting strains
    Low-virulence102 (69.4)17 (56.7)1 [reference]3 (23.1)1 [reference]16 (43.2)1 [reference]
    High-virulence45 (30.6)13 (43.3)1.79 (0.79-4.08)10 (76.9)9.81 (2.39-40.31)21 (56.8)3.28 (1.51-7.14)
Smoking status
    Never smoker52 (35.4)5 (16.7)1 [reference]5 (38.5)1 [reference]6 (16.2)1 [reference]
    Ever smoker95 (64.6)25 (83.3)2.82 (1.01-7.88)8 (61.5)0.86 (0.24-3.02)31 (83.8)2.97 (1.12-7.84)
  • * Age, education, H. pylori virulence, and smoking status adjusted.

  • “High-virulence” mean simultaneous infection with cagA+ and vacA s1/m1, vacA s1/m2, or vacA s2/m1; “low-virulence” means otherwise. Subjects simultaneously infected with vacA s1 and s2 strains or vacA m1 and m2 strains were considered as infected with “high-virulence” strains.