Table 2.

Association between intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori virulence and smoking status (logistic regression analysis)

Normal stomach/chronic nonatrophic gastritis
Intestinal metaplasia
n (%)n (%)OR (95% CI)*
Never smokers infected with low-virulence H. pylori strains38 (25.9)6 (7.5)1 [reference]
Never smokers infected with high-virulence H. pylori strains14 (9.5)10 (12.5)5.74 (1.68-19.63)
Ever smokers infected with low-virulence H. pylori strains64 (43.5)30 (37.5)3.54 (1.30-9.61)
Ever smokers infected with high-virulence H. pylori strains31 (21.1)34 (42.5)8.61 (3.07-24.17)
  • * Age and education adjusted.

  • “High-virulence” means simultaneous infection with cagA+ and vacA s1/m1, vacA s1/m2, or vacA s2/m1; “low-virulence” means otherwise. Subjects simultaneously infected with vacA s1 and s2 strains or vacA m1 and m2 strains were considered as infected with “high-virulence” strains.