Table 1.

Association between intestinal metaplasia and socio-demographic, H. pylori virulence, and lifestyle variables (logistic regression analysis)

Normal stomach/chronic nonatrophic gastritis
Intestinal metaplasia
n (%)n (%)Crude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)*
Age (y)
    <4061 (41.5)22 (27.5)1 [reference]1 [reference]
    40-5076 (51.7)44 (55.0)1.60 (0.87-2.96)1.66 (0.88-3.14)
    >5010 (6.8)14 (17.5)3.88 (1.51-10.00)4.01 (1.48-10.84)
Education (y)
    ≤435 (23.8)22 (27.5)1 [reference]1 [reference]
    5-981 (55.1)47 (58.8)0.92 (0.48-1.76)1.24 (0.62-2.49)
    ≥1031 (21.1)11 (13.7)0.56 (0.24-1.35)0.83 (0.33-2.09)
cagA genotype
    Negative79 (53.7)17 (21.2)1 [reference]1 [reference]
    Positive68 (46.3)63 (78.8)4.30 (2.30-8.05)4.70 (2.46-9.01)
vacA s genotype
    s268 (46.2)12 (15.0)1 [reference]1 [reference]
    s152 (35.4)57 (71.2)6.21 (3.02-12.76)7.18 (3.35-15.36)
    s1/s227 (18.4)11 (13.8)2.31 (0.91-5.86)2.50 (0.96-6.54)
vacA m genotype
    m283 (56.5)21 (26.2)1 [reference]1 [reference]
    m134 (23.1)49 (61.3)5.70 (2.98-10.90)5.93 (3.02-11.62)
    m1/m230 (20.4)10 (12.5)1.32 (0.56-3.12)1.16 (0.48-2.80)
Smoking status
    Never smoker52 (35.4)16 (20.0)1 [reference]1 [reference]
    Former smoker50 (34.0)28 (35.0)1.82 (0.88-3.76)1.78 (0.84-3.76)
    Current smoker45 (30.6)36 (45.0)2.60 (1.28-5.29)3.19 (1.51-6.73)
Tobacco use (pack-years)§
    Never smoker52 (36.6)16 (21.3)1 [reference]1 [reference]
    <2050 (35.2)27 (36.0)1.76 (0.84-3.64)2.02 (0.95-4.33)
    ≥2040 (28.2)32 (42.7)2.60 (1.25-5.38)2.65 (1.26-5.58)
Alcohol consumption (drinks/wk)
    ≤113 (9.3)5 (6.8)1 [reference]1 [reference]
    2-625 (18.0)10 (13.5)1.04 (0.29-3.69)1.09 (0.30-3.95)
    ≥7101 (72.7)59 (79.7)1.52 (0.52-4.47)1.35 (0.45-4.06)
Wine consumption (drinks/wk)**
    ≤114 (10.3)6 (8.3)1 [reference]1 [reference]††
    2-627 (19.8)11 (15.3)0.95 (0.29-3.11)0.83 (0.22-3.16)
    ≥795 (69.9)55 (76.4)1.35 (0.49-3.72)1.03 (0.30-3.47)
Beer consumption (drinks/wk)‡‡
    ≤153 (40.2)28 (38.9)1 [reference]1 [reference]††
    2-651 (38.6)34 (47.2)1.26 (0.67-2.37)1.56 (0.75-3.25)
    ≥728 (21.2)10 (13.9)0.68 (0.29-1.59)0.64 (0.23-1.78)
Hard liquor consumption (drinks/wk)§§
    ≤179 (59.0)48 (64.0)1 [reference]1 [reference]††
    2-650 (37.3)22 (29.3)0.72 (0.39-1.34)0.63 (0.30-1.30)
    ≥75 (3.7)5 (6.7)1.64 (0.45-5.98)2.66 (0.57-12.33)
  • * Age and education adjusted, except if otherwise specified.

  • Education adjusted.

  • Age adjusted.

  • § Data available for 217 subjects.

  • Data available for 213 subjects.

  • Including one never drinker and one ex-drinker.

  • ** Data available for 208 subjects.

  • †† Adjusted for age, education, and consumption of other types of alcoholic beverages.

  • ‡‡ Data available for 204 subjects.

  • §§ Data available for 209 subjects.