Table 2.

Airborne nicotine concentrations (μg/m3) by location characteristics

NMedianGMIQRCrude ratio of GM (95% confidence interval)Adjusted ratio* of GM (95% confidence interval)
Institution
    Hospital20<LD0.004<LD-0.011.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    School/University280.010.005<LD-0.021.21 (0.49-3.01)0.88 (0.33-2.37)
    Government building110.010.01<LD-0.052.23 (0.70-7.17)1.56 (0.28-8.73)
    Airport100.010.01<LD-0.011.41 (0.42-4.68)0.94 (0.23-3.77)
    Restaurant100.580.560.46-0.71131 (39.3-436)114 (32.1-400)
    Bar104.583.021.71-6.45701 (210-2333)710 (206-2442)
Smoking ban sign
    Yes230.010.01<LD-0.051.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    No660.010.02<LD-0.381.68 (0.46-6.19)0.87 (0.34-2.18)
Ventilation
    Natural560.010.03<LD-0.411.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Mechanical170.010.01<LD-0.050.59 (0.13-2.68)1.04 (0.25-3.95)
    Mixed160.010.01<LD-0.060.36 (0.08-1.73)1.86 (0.63-5.48)
Volume (m3)
    <100280.020.010.01-0.311.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    100-500370.010.02<LD-0.331.42 (0.36-5.61)0.56 (0.24-1.34)
    ≥500240.020.030.01-0.312.81 (0.61-12.9)1.46 (0.54-3.93)
  • Abbreviations: GM, geometric mean; LD, limit of detection.

  • * Adjusted for type of public place, presence of a smoking ban sign, type of ventilation or volume of the area.