Table 1.

Cohort studies reporting on the association between general obesity and risk of colorectal cancer

First author/year (reference number)Cohort
Outcome
BMI status (kg/m2)
Level of adjustment
Name (country)No. (sex)SourceCancer subtypeNo. eventsObesity definition (kg/m2)Per 2-unit increase
Groups
RR (95% CI)BMIRR (95% CI)
Lukanova, 2006 (15)NSHDC (Sweden)33,424 (M)NRC73>30NA18.5-24.91.001,4,18
25.0-29.91.57 (0.94-2.71)
≥30.01.43 (0.62-3.02)
35,362 (F)C76>30NA18.5-24.91.00
25.0-29.91.28 (0.78-2.18)
≥30.02.25 (1.25-3.98)
MR58>30NA18.5-24.91.00
25.0-29.90.80 (0.44-1.45)
≥30.01.96 (0.96-3.86)
FR31>30NA18.5-24.91.00
25.0-29.91.31 (0.59-2.86)
≥30.01.30 (0.42-3.45)
Larsson, 2006 (16)COSM (Sweden)45,906 (M)CR,DCCR464>301.08 (1.02-1.14)<23.01.001,4,8,10,11,13
C284>3023.0-24.91.11 (0.77-1.61)
25.0-26.91.07 (0.73-1.56)
27.0-29.91.15 (0.78-1.70)
≥30.01.60 (1.03-2.48)
R180>30<23.01.00
23.0-24.91.08 (0.65-1.80)
25.0-26.91.35 (0.83-2.19)
27.0-29.91.53 (0.93-2.51)
≥30.01.44 (0.79-2.61)
MacInnis, 2006 (17)MCCS (Australia)17,049 (M)CR,DC,MRR134>301.04 (0.94-1.14)<25.01.001,2,17
25.0-29.91.70 (1.10-2.70)
≥30.01.30 (0.80-2.40)
24,479 (F)R95>300.99 (0.91-1.08)<25.01.00
25.0-29.90.70 (0.40-1.10)
≥30.01.10 (0.70-1.90)
MacInnis, 2006 (18)MCCS (Australia)24,479 (F)CR,DC,MRC212>301.02 (0.96-1.08)<25.01.001,8,13,17
25.0-29.90.80 (0.60-1.20)
≥30.01.00 (0.70-1.40)
Bowers, 2006 (19)ATBCPS (Finland)(28,983)CRC227>30NA<18.51.47 (0.36-5.98)1,3,4
M18.5-251.00
25-301.07 (0.79-1.44)
>301.78 (1.25-2.55)
R183>30NA<18.50.96 (0.40-3.93)
18.5-251.00
25-301.18 (0.85-1.64)
>301.51 (0.99-2.29)
Pischon, 2006 (20)EPIC (Europe)129,731 (M)MR,CR, SR,P,PRC421>301.10 (1.04-1.17)18.5-24.91.001,2,4,5,11 12,13,19
25-29.91.00 (0.80-1.26)
≥301.41 (1.06-1.88)
238,546 (F)C563>301.04 (1.00-1.08)18.5-24.91.00
25-29.91.16 (0.96-1.40)
≥301.07 (0.82-1.38)
MR295NANA<23.61.00
23.6-25.30.88 (0.60-1.30)
25.4-27.00.96 (0.66-1.40)
27.1-29.31.11 (0.77-1.62)
≥29.31.05 (0.72-1.55)
FR291NANA<21.71.00
21.7-23.50.78 (0.51-1.18)
23.6-25.71.14 (0.78-1.66)
25.8-28.80.95 (0.64-1.41)
≥28.91.06 (0.71-1.58)
Ahmed, 2006 (21)ARIC (USA)14,109 (M+F)SR,CR1,2,4,5,8
MCR107NANA<24.71.00
≥29.81.52 (0.90-2.70)
FCR87NANA<23.41.00
≥31.31.26 (0.60-2.60)
Otani, 2005 (22)JPHC (Japan)49,158 (M)NRC424>30NA<25.01.001,2,4,5,12
25-26.91.30 (1.02-1.70)
27-29.91.50 (1.08-2.10)
≥30.01.40 (0.70-2.80)
53,791 (F)C229>30NA<25.01.00
25-26.91.30 (0.90-1.80)
27-29.90.90 (0.60-1.40)
≥30.00.50 (0.20-1.40)
MR202>30NA<25.01.00
25-26.91.00 (0.70-1.50)
27-29.91.20 (0.70-1.90)
≥30.01.60 (0.60-3.90)
FR131>30NA<25.01.00
25-26.91.20 (0.80-2.00)
27-29.91.00 (0.50-1.80)
≥30.01.30 (0.50-3.10)
Rapp, 2005 (23)VHM&PP (Austria)67,447 (M)CR,DCC260>30NA18.5-24.91.001,4,14
25.0-29.91.14 (0.86-1.50)
30.0-35.01.56 (1.06-2.30)
≥35.02.48 (1.15-5.39)
78,484 (F)C271>30NA18.5-24.9
25.0-29.91.13 (0.86-1.47)
30.0-35.01.11 (0.76-1.62)
≥35.00.88 (0.43-1.81)
MR138>30NA18.5-24.91.00
25.0-29.91.20 (0.82-1.75)
≥30.01.66 (1.01-2.73)
FR133>30NA18.5-24.91.00
25.0-29.90.90 (0.62-1.31)
30.0-35.00.66 (0.36-1.23)
≥35.00.96 (0.38-2.39)
Engeland, 2005 (24)NHS (Norway)963,709 (M)CR,NRC13,805>301.08 (1.08-1.10)<18.50.73 (0.54-0.97)1,16,20
18.5-24.91.00
25.0-29.91.21 (1.17-1.26)
≥30.01.49 (1.39-1.60)
1,038,010 (F)C16,638>30NA<18.50.95 (0.82-1.10)
18.5-24.91.00
25-29.91.03 (1.00-1.07)
≥30.01.07 (1.02-1.12)
MR9,182>30NA<18.51.00 (0.74-1.34)
18.5-24.91.00
25-29.91.06 (1.02-1.11)
≥30.01.27 (1.16-1.38)
FR7,492>30NA<18.51.25 (1.03-1.50)
18.5-24.91.00
25-29.90.98 (0.93-1.03)
≥30.01.04 (0.97-1.11)
Kuriyama, 2005 (25)Japan12,485 (M)CR,NRC88>30NA18.5-24.91.001,4,5,12,16
25.0-27.41.39 (0.82-2.37)
27.5-29.91.12 (0.40-3.08)
≥30.01.30 (0.32-5.37)
15,054 (F)C72>30NA18.5-24.91.00
25.0-27.41.11 (0.69-1.80)
27.5-29.91.28 (0.68-2.43)
≥30.02.06 (1.03-4.13)
MR67>30NA18.5-24.91.00
25.0-27.40.67 (0.30-1.49)
27.5-29.92.38 (1.07-5.30)
≥30.02.41 (0.74-7.85)
FR42>30NA18.5-24.91.00
25.0-27.41.34 (0.65-2.80)
27.5-29.90.88 (0.27-2.90)
≥30.01.21 (0.29-5.14)
Oh, 2005 (26)Korea781,283 (M)CR,MR,DCC953>30NA<18.51.00 (0.62-1.63)1,4,5,10,11,14
18.5-22.91.00
23.0-24.91.24 (1.07-1.43)
25.0-26.91.33 (1.13-1.57)
27.0-29.91.07 (0.83-1.38)
≥30.01.92 (1.15-3.22)
MR1,563>30NA<18.50.64 (0.362-1.13)
18.5-22.91.00
23.0-24.91.06 (0.92-1.22)
25.0-26.91.29 (1.10-1.52)
27.0-29.91.15 (0.91-1.46)
≥30.01.08 (0.56-2.10)
Lin, 2004 (27)WHS (USA)39,876 (F)MR,SR,PC158>30NA<23.01.001,2,4,5,8,10,11,16
23.0-24.91.59 (0.99-2.54)
25.0-26.91.26 (0.74-2.16)
27.0-29.91.90 (1.17-3.10)
≥30.01.73 (1.05-2.85)
R40>30NA<23.01.00
23.0-24.90.66 (0.23-1.89)
25.0-26.91.38 (0.55-3.46)
27.0-29.91.03 (0.38-2.80)
≥30.01.55 (0.64-3.77)
MacInnis, 2004 (28)MCCS (Australia)17,049 (M)CR, MRC153NA1.11 (1.02-1.21)<24.81.001,13,17
24.8-26.91.30 (0.80-2.20)
27.0-29.21.40 (0.80-2.30)
>29.21.70 (1.10-2.80)
Wei, 2004 (29)NHS and HPFS (USA)46,632 (M)NR, MRC452>30NA<23.01.001,4,5,8,10,11,12
23-24.91.33 (0.97-1.83)
25-29.91.54 (1.15-2.07)
≥30.01.85 (1.26-2.72)
87,733 (F)C671>30NA<23.01.00
23-24.91.10 (0.88-1.36)
25-29.91.11 (0.91-1.35)
≥30.01.28 (1.01-2.42)
MR132>30NA<23.01.00
23-24.91.16 (0.70-1.94)
25-29.90.93 (0.57-1.53)
≥30.01.03 (0.49-2.14)
FR204>30NA<23.01.00
23-24.91.37 (0.92-2.02)
25-29.91.40 (0.98-2.01)
≥30.01.56 (1.01-2.42)
Moore, 2004 (30)Framingham (USA)1,684 (M)NR,MR,DCC71>30NA<25.01.001,2,4,5,11,20
30-45 y25.0-29.91.10 (0.67-1.90)
≥30.02.00 (0.98-4.20)
2,080 (F)C86>30NA<25.01.00
30-45 y25.0-29.91.50 (0.92-2.40)
≥30.01.30 (0.62-2.70)
1,661 (M)C72>30NA<25.01.00
55-79 y25.0-29.92.10 (1.10-4.00)
≥30.03.70 (1.70-8.10)
2,141 (F)C80>30NA<25.01.00
55-79 y25.0-29.91.70 (1.00-2.80)
≥30.01.90 (0.98-3.50)
Terry, 2002 (31)NBSS (Canada)89,835 (F)NR,CRC363>30NA<25.01.001,4,8,11,13,15
25-<301.13 (0.89-1.43)
≥30.00.95 (0.67-1.34)
R164>30NA <25.01.00
25-<300.83 (0.57-1.21)
≥30.01.35 (0.87-2.07)
Ford, 1999 (32)NHANES (USA)13,420 (M+F)DC, MR, PR, PC222>301.12 (1.06-1.21)1,2,4,5,7,9,11
MC104>30NA<22.01.00
22.0-<24.01.58 (0.57-4.36)
24.0-<26.01.59 (0.59-4.25)
26.0-<28.02.41 (<1.00-5.82)
28.0-<303.72 (1.41-8.83)
≥302.95 (0.99-8.74)
FC118>30NA<22.01.00
22.0-<24.02.03 (0.87-5.17)
24.0-<26.02.17 (0.78-6.04)
26.0-<28.02.49 (0.83-7.47)
28.0-<303.64 (1.27-10.5)
≥302.74 (1.04-7.25)
Chyou, 1996 (33)USA7945 (M)MR,CRC330NA1.12 (1.06-1.21)<21.71.001
21.7-23.81.16 (0.84-1.61)
23.8-25.81.36 (0.99-1.86)
≥25.81.38 (1.01-1.90)
R123NANA<21.71.00
21.7-23.80.68 (0.42-1.10)
23.8-25.80.73 (0.45-1.17)
≥25.80.63 (0.38-1.04)
Bostick, 1994 (34)IWHS (USA)35,215 (F)NR,CRColon212NANA<22.91.001,12,15,20
22.9-25.00.97 (0.59-1.59)
25.0-27.51.69 (1.10-2.61)
27.5-30.61.51 (0.97-2.37)
>30.61.41 (0.90-2.23)
Lee, 1992 (35)USA17,595 (M)SR,DC,MRC302NA1.17 (1.08-1.28)<22.51.001,10,11
22.5-<23.51.30 (0.84-1.94)
23.5-<24.51.10 (0.75-1.61)
24.5-<26.01.34 (0.93-1.94)
≥26.01.52 (1.06-2.17)
Kreger, 1991 (36)Framingham (USA)5,209 (M+F) MMR,PRC56NA1.15 (1.00-1.32)NANA1
FC66NA1.06 (0.96-1.14)
MR19NA0.83 (0.64-1.10)
FR20NA0.98 (0.80-1.21)
Klatsky, 1988 (37)USA106,203 (M+F)MRC203NA2.20 (1.49-3.21)NANA1,4,5,7,9,13
R66NA1.00 (0.44-2.19)NANA
  • NOTE: Level of adjustment—1, age; 2, sex; 3, diabetes; 4, smoking; 5, alcohol; 6, hypertension; 7, hypercholesteremia; 8, medication; 9, race; 10, family history; 11, physical activity; 12, diet; 13, education; 14, socioeconomic status; 15, pregnancy for women; 16, menstruation; 17, place of birth; 18, calendar year; 19, study centre; 20, height; 21, marital status; 22, birth cohort.

    Abbreviations: Subtype—C, colon; R, rectum; CR, colorectal. Source of cancer diagnosis—CRG, cancer registry; MR, medical records; DC, death certificate; SR, self-report; P, proxy provided information; NR, national registry; PR, pathology records. Sex—M, male; F, female. Cohort name—NSHDC, the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort; NHANES, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; NBSS, the National Breast Screening Study; JPHC, the Japan Public Health Center–based Prospective study; WHS, the Women's Health Study; VHM&PP, the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring and Promotion Program; MCCS, the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study; ATBCPS, Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study; EPIC, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; NHS, the Norwegian Health survey; NHS, the Nurses' Health Study; HPFS, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study; COSM, the cohort of Swedish men. NA, not available.