Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of participants, according to total dairy product consumption in the PLCO study

Total dairy product intake (servings/day)*
Number of participants (%)7,377 (25%)7,377 (25%)7,378 (25%)7,377 (25%)
Age at study entry (y)62.362.862.962.8
Body mass index (kg/m2)27.327.527.527.9
Physical activity (h/wk)
Family history of prostate cancer (%)
History of diabetes (%)
Daily aspirin use (%)29.431.530.930.9
Number of screens/y0.840.840.840.84
Smoking status (%)
    Cigar or pipe only7.
Race (%)
Calories (kcal/d)1,8922,1412,4272,876
Low-fat dairy (servings/d)0.150.390.721.89
High-fat dairy (servings/d)0.190.320.460.76
Total milk (servings/d)0.300.821.252.30
Dietary calcium (mg/d)7698971,0291,387
Supplemental calcium (mg/d)135134136135
Dietary vitamin D (IU/d)158195232345
Supplemental vitamin D (IU/d)201199205207
Total phosphorus (mg/d)1,1341,3911,6712,192
Red meat consumption (g/d)1101049988
Total fat (g/d)78798082
Total vitamin E (mg/d)75757473
Alcohol (g/d)18171514
  • NOTE: Values are expressed as means or proportions.

  • * Dietary intakes (except alcohol) were adjusted for total energy intake.

  • Average number of prostate cancer screening examinations (prostate-specific antigen test and/or digital rectal examination) during the period of active screening (years 0-5).