Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of participants, according to total dairy product consumption in the PLCO study

Total dairy product intake (servings/day)*
≤0.980.99-1.671.68-2.74≥2.75
Number of participants (%)7,377 (25%)7,377 (25%)7,378 (25%)7,377 (25%)
Age at study entry (y)62.362.862.962.8
Body mass index (kg/m2)27.327.527.527.9
Physical activity (h/wk)2.12.22.32.3
Family history of prostate cancer (%)7.37.48.07.9
History of diabetes (%)7.29.08.59.1
Daily aspirin use (%)29.431.530.930.9
Number of screens/y0.840.840.840.84
Smoking status (%)
    Never26.128.330.533.0
    Current12.29.69.510.9
    Former54.154.051.748.5
    Cigar or pipe only7.68.28.37.6
Race (%)
    Caucasian81.291.394.495.9
    African-American6.73.22.11.4
    Other12.15.53.52.7
Calories (kcal/d)1,8922,1412,4272,876
Low-fat dairy (servings/d)0.150.390.721.89
High-fat dairy (servings/d)0.190.320.460.76
Total milk (servings/d)0.300.821.252.30
Dietary calcium (mg/d)7698971,0291,387
Supplemental calcium (mg/d)135134136135
Dietary vitamin D (IU/d)158195232345
Supplemental vitamin D (IU/d)201199205207
Total phosphorus (mg/d)1,1341,3911,6712,192
Red meat consumption (g/d)1101049988
Total fat (g/d)78798082
Total vitamin E (mg/d)75757473
Alcohol (g/d)18171514
  • NOTE: Values are expressed as means or proportions.

  • * Dietary intakes (except alcohol) were adjusted for total energy intake.

  • Average number of prostate cancer screening examinations (prostate-specific antigen test and/or digital rectal examination) during the period of active screening (years 0-5).