Table 5.

Associations between pregnancy-related hormones, offspring gender, and ovarian cancer risk

Pregnancy-related hormones and proteins(1) Possible association between hormone and ovarian cancer risk(2) Possible association between bearing male offspring and hormone*(3) Predicted association between bearing male offspring and maternal ovarian cancer riskAgreement between the present findings and the predicted association
Estrogen↑/−−/↓Partial agreement
Androgens↑/−↑/−Disagreement
Progesterone↑/−−/↓Partial agreement
hCGDisagreement
IGF-I−/↓−/↓Partial agreement
α-Fetoprotein00Undetermined
  • NOTE: ↑, positive association; ↓, inverse association; −, null association; 0, no information.

  • * Compared with bearing female offspring.

  • Predicted associations, based on the possible associations in (1) and (2), between bearing male offspring and ovarian cancer risk.

  • Agreement or disagreement between the predicted and our observed associations between bearing male offspring and maternal ovarian cancer risk.