Table 4.

Association between acrylamide intake and risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer, adjusted for acrylamide-containing foods; the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS), 1986 to 1997


Additionally adjusted for
Increment per 10 μg acrylamide/d
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Ptrend
Endometrial cancer
All
    Cases/person-years*221/15,83644/3,20240/3,07839/3,09546/3,17552/3,285
    HR (95% CI)na1.04 (0.91-1.19)1.000.95 (0.59-1.54)0.94 (0.56-1.56)1.21 (0.74-1.98)1.29 (0.81-2.07)0.18
    HR (95% CI)Coffee1.06 (0.93-1.22)1.001.02 (0.61-1.71)1.04 (0.60-1.87)1.35 (0.79-2.32)1.46 (0.86-2.46)0.09
    HR (95% CI)Dutch spiced cake1.07 (0.79-1.43)1.000.96 (0.59-1.56)0.96 (0.58-1.61)1.36 (0.78-2.35)1.85 (0.86-3.97)0.17
    HR (95% CI)Cookies1.05 (0.92-1.20)1.00§0.98 (0.61-1.59)0.98 (0.58-1.65)1.27 (0.77-2.09)1.37 (0.84-2.21)0.13
    HR (95% CI)French fries1.01 (0.88-1.17)1.000.95 (0.59-1.54)0.93 (0.56-1.55)1.16 (0.71-1.92)1.24 (0.76-2.00)0.29
    HR (95% CI)Potato crisps1.03 (0.90-1.19)1.000.95 (0.59-1.54)0.94 (0.56-1.56)1.20 (0.73-1.97)1.28 (0.80-2.06)0.20
Endometrial cancer
Never-smokers
    Cases/person-years*, never-smokers150/9,42227/2,11325/1,78629/1,70929/1,88340/1,931
    HR (95% CI)na1.12 (0.95-1.33)1.001.16 (0.63-2.15)1.35 (0.73-2.51)1.30 (0.69-2.46)1.99 (1.12-3.52)0.03
    HR (95% CI)Coffee1.13 (0.95-1.35)1.001.25 (0.65-2.38)1.50 (0.77-2.93)1.44 (0.74-2.79)2.16 (1.16-4.05)0.02
    HR (95% CI)Dutch spiced cake1.05 (0.71-1.55)1.001.17 (0.64-2.17)1.38 (0.75-2.57)1.45 (0.73-2.88)2.67 (1.08-6.61)0.08
    HR (95% CI)Cookies1.14 (0.96-1.35)1.001.23 (0.66-2.27)1.45 (0.77-2.75)1.39 (0.74-2.63)2.13 (1.18-3.85)0.02
    HR (95% CI)French fries1.11 (0.93-1.32)1.001.16 (0.63-2.15)1.34 (0.73-2.49)1.26 (0.65-2.47)1.92 (1.07-3.45)0.05
    HR (95% CI)Potato crisps1.14 (0.95-1.35)1.001.16 (0.63-2.14)1.35 (0.73-2.51)1.32 (0.70-2.48)2.01 (1.14-3.57)0.02
All
Ovarian cancer
    Cases/person-years*195/19,03731/3,80339/3,93932/3,59539/3,82354/3,877
    HR (95% CI)na1.11 (0.99-1.25)1.001.22 (0.73-2.01)1.12 (0.65-1.92)1.28 (0.77-2.13)1.78 (1.10-2.88)0.02
    HR (95% CI)§Coffee1.08 (0.95-1.22)1.001.11 (0.66-1.86)0.97 (0.56-1.70)1.09 (0.63-1.90)1.53 (0.93-2.53)0.10
    HR (95% CI)§Dutch spiced cake1.33 (1.08-1.65)1.001.25 (0.75-2.06)1.18 (0.69-2.02)1.53 (0.90-2.60)3.24 (1.57-6.71)0.01
    HR (95% CI)§Cookies1.10 (0.98-1.25)1.001.20 (0.73-1.99)1.10 (0.64-1.91)1.26 (0.75-2.12)1.74 (1.05-2.89)0.04
    HR (95% CI)§French fries1.09 (0.96-1.24)1.001.21 (0.73-2.01)1.11 (0.65-1.90)1.24 (0.74-2.09)1.72 (1.04-2.82)0.05
    HR (95% CI)§Potato crisps1.11 (0.99-1.25)1.001.22 (0.73-2.01)1.12 (0.65-1.92)1.28 (0.77-2.13)1.78 (1.10-2.88)0.03
Ovarian cancer
Never-smokers
    Cases/person-years*, never-smokers129/11,44618/2,54027/2,37322/1,99229/2,25033/2,292
    HR (95% CI)§na1.17 (1.01-1.36)1.001.60 (0.85-3.02)1.64 (0.84-3.19)1.86 (1.00-3.48)2.22 (1.20-4.08)0.01
    HR (95% CI)§Coffee1.12 (0.95-1.32)1.001.43 (0.75-2.75)1.37 (0.68-2.76)1.54 (0.77-3.05)1.86 (0.98-3.51)0.08
    HR (95% CI)§Dutch spiced cake1.44 (1.07-1.94)1.001.62 (0.86-3.06)1.67 (0.85-3.26)2.01 (1.04-3.88)2.91 (1.10-7.67)0.02
    HR (95% CI)§Cookies1.18 (1.00-1.38)1.001.63 (0.87-3.06)1.68 (0.85-3.32)1.92 (1.01-3.65)2.29 (1.21-4.34)0.02
    HR (95% CI)§French fries1.17 (1.01-1.37)1.001.61 (0.85-3.05)1.65 (0.84-3.22)1.91 (1.00-3.64)2.26 (1.21-4.24)0.01
    HR (95% CI)§Potato crisps1.17 (1.00-1.36)1.001.60 (0.85-3.02)1.63 (0.84-3.18)1.85 (0.99-3.47)2.19 (1.19-4.04)0.01
  • NOTE: Data represent HRs for acrylamide intake. The numbers of cases and person-years are the numbers that resulted after list-wise deletion of observations with missing values on the selected confounders. Number (percentage) of cases who consumed coffee: endometrial cancer cases: 212 (95.9); ovarian cancer cases: 192 (98.5). Number (percentage) of cases who consumed Dutch spiced cake: endometrial cancer cases: 110 (49.8); ovarian cancer cases: 104 (53.3). Number (percentage) of cases who consumed cookies: endometrial cancer cases: 194 (87.8); ovarian cancer cases: 179 (91.8). Number (percentage) of cases who consumed French fries: endometrial cancer cases: 82 (37.1); ovarian cancer cases: 56 (28.7). Number (percentage) of cases who consumed potato crisps: endometrial cancer cases: 51 (23.1); ovarian cancer cases: 42 (21.5).

    Abbreviation: na, not applicable. Hrs are from Table 3.

  • * Number of cases that accumulated in the total cohort/person-years at risk of the subcohort.

  • Adjusted for age (y), age at menarche (y), age at menopause (y), age at first childbirth (y), parity (n children), duration of oral contraceptives use (y), duration of postmenopausal hormone use (y), BMI (kg/m2), height (cm), current smoking (yes/no), quantity of smoking (cigarettes/d), duration of smoking (n smoking years), non-occupational physical activity (min/d), energy intake (kcal/d), trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake (energy-adjusted; g/d), carbohydrate intake (energy-adjusted; g/d), alcohol consumption (g/d).

  • Reference category.

  • § Adjusted for age (y), age at menarche (y), age at menopause (y), parity (n children), duration of oral contraceptives use (y), duration of postmenopausal hormone use (y), BMI (kg/m2), height (cm), current smoking (yes/no), quantity of smoking (cigarettes/d), duration of smoking (n smoking years), saturated fat intake (energy-adjusted; g/d), trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake (energy-adjusted; g/d).