Table 2.

Characteristics of the subcohort members across quintiles of daily dietary acrylamide intake; the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS), 1986 to 1997

VariableQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5P*
Number of subcohort members471482455466470
Dietary variables
    Acrylamide intake, μg/d9.5 (3.7)14.0 (1.5)17.9 (2.2)24.3 (4.7)36.8 (9.6)<0.001
    Acrylamide intake, μg/kg body weight per day0.14 (0.06)0.20 (0.04)0.26 (0.05)0.34 (0.08)0.53 (0.19)<0.001
    Coffee consumption, g/d250 (125)500 (125)500 (250)500 (375)500 (375)<0.001
    Dutch spiced cake consumption, g/d0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.7)0.0 (1.8)1.8 (7.8)20.4 (12.6)<0.001
    Cookie consumption, g/d3.7 (8.7)9.6 (20.4)16.7 (14.8)16.7 (14.8)16.7 (14.8)<0.001
    Potato crisp consumption, g/d0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.3)0.0 (0.7)<0.001
    French fries consumption, g/d0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (4.8)0.0 (12.3)0.0 (9.7)<0.001
    Total energy intake, kcal1467 (449)1580 (452)1671 (465)1730 (550)1821 (548)<0.001
    Carbohydrate intake, g/d153 (55)162 (50)176 (53)183 (61)200 (69)<0.001
    Saturated fat intake, g/d25.5 (12.0)28.0 (12.6)28.9 (11.6)29.8 (13.2)30.8 (12.3)<0.001
    Trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake, g/d1.8 (1.2)2.1 (1.3)2.3 (1.4)2.6 (1.5)2.7 (1.6)<0.001
    Fiber intake, g/d22.9 (9.5)23.9 (8.5)24.5 (9.1)25.7 (9.6)26.6 (8.6)<0.001
    Vegetable intake, g/d184 (107)182 (102)179 (83)190 (104)184 (96)0.34
    Fruit intake, g/d184 (151)179 (149)175 (140)174 (138)180 (146)0.42
    Alcohol intake, g/d0.9 (8.4)1.6 (7.8)2.0 (8.6)1.9 (7.0)1.4 (7.1)0.09
Nondietary variables
    Age, y62 (7)61 (7)60 (7)61 (8)61 (7)<0.001
    BMI, kg/m224.6 (4.3)24.8 (4.4)24.8 (4.3)24.6 (4.3)24.3 (4.2)0.07
    Height, cm165 (8)165 (9)165 (8)165 (8)165 (10)0.18
    Parity, n children2 (3)3 (3)3 (2)3 (2)2 (3)0.003
    Age at menarche, y13 (2)13 (2)14 (3)14 (2)14 (3)0.12
    Age at menopause, y50 (6)50 (6)49 (7)50 (6)50 (6)0.38
    Age at first childbirth, y27 (5)26 (5)27 (5)26 (5)26 (5)0.92
    Current cigarette smoking, % yes17.018.925.921.519.20.02
    n cigarettes per day among ever-smokers10 (15)10 (15)10 (15)10 (10)10 (15)0.79
    n smoking years among ever-smokers31 (20)27 (20)30 (20)28 (21)29 (19)0.03
    Non-occupational physical activity, minutes/d51.4 (57.9)51.4 (54.6)53.6 (54.3)53.6 (53.6)51.4 (60.0)0.91
    Oral contraceptive use, % ever22.625.126.126.523.60.61
    Oral contraceptive use duration among ever-users, y6 (9)6 (9)6 (8)7 (10)8 (8)0.22
    Postmenop. hrt§ use, % ever13.614.912.611.411.00.76
    Postmenop. hrt§ use duration among ever-users, y2 (5)1 (4)1 (2)2 (3)2 (4)0.15
    Education, %<0.001
        Primary school29.930.934.535.235.1
        Lower vocational school18.320.525.726.224.0
        Intermediate vocational/high school37.239.633.629.032.3
        Higher vocational school/University13.68.55.59.08.1
    Family history of breast cancer, % yes8.58.97.97.511.10.35
    Family history of endometrial cancer, % yes2.32.33.53.42.30.60
    Family history of ovarian cancer, % yes0.00.00.00.20.00.52
  • * P value for Kruskal-Wallis test or χ2 test (proportions).

  • Data represent medians (interquartile range).

  • Percentages.

  • § Postmenop.hrt = postmenopausal hormone treatment.