Table 3.

Summary estimates for alcoholic beverage types and lung cancer risk by subgroup

Average consumptionBeer
Wine
Liquor
Number of papers (studies)*RR (95% CI)PNumber of papers (studies)*RR (95% CI)PNumber of papers (studies)*RR (95% CI)P
All studies<1 drink/d9 (16)0.78 (0.64-0.95)0.018 (15)0.77 (0.59-1.00)<0.018 (17)0.89 (0.74-1.08)<0.01
≥ 1 drink/d8 (15)1.25 (1.06-1.48)0.117 (14)0.78 (0.60-1.02)0.038 (15)1.25 (1.04-1.51)0.02
Highest category§14 (21)1.23 (1.06-1.41)0.0813 (20)0.79 (0.65-0.95)0.0514 (21)1.08 (0.95-1.23)0.07
Case-control<1 drink/d7 (8)0.77 (0.59-1.02)0.016 (7)0.73 (0.50-1.05)<0.016 (7)0.86 (0.65-1.13)<0.01
≥ 1 drink/d5 (6)1.15 (0.85-1.55)0.085 (6)0.80 (0.60-1.07)0.145 (6)1.19 (0.91-1.56)0.03
Highest category10 (11)1.16 (0.94-1.43)0.0610 (11)0.73 (0.63-0.86)0.7610 (11)1.03 (0.87-1.23)0.15
Cohort<1 drink/d2 (8)0.84 (0.64-1.10)0.242 (8)0.86 (0.77-0.95)0.452 (8)0.97 (0.88-1.07)0.71
≥ 1 drink/d3 (9)1.39 (1.21-1.61)0.662 (8)0.66 (0.27-1.65)0.013 (9)1.41 (0.99-1.99)0.06
Highest category4 (10)1.37 (1.19-1.58)0.693 (9)0.95 (0.44-2.04)<0.014 (10)1.18 (1.03-1.34)0.66
Men<1 drink/d5 (12)0.92 (0.81-1.04)0.364 (11)0.94 (0.72-1.21)0.014 (11)1.01 (0.82-1.24)0.04
≥ 1 drink/d6 (13)1.20 (0.99-1.46)0.155 (12)0.76 (0.56-1.03)0.056 (13)1.33 (1.08-1.63)0.04
Highest category8 (15)1.23 (1.04-1.45)0.197 (14)0.84 (0.63-1.12)0.048 (15)1.20 (1.06-1.36)0.55
Women<1 drink/d3 (9)0.68 (0.31-1.50)<0.013 (9)0.56 (0.28-1.14)<0.013 (9)0.70 (0.40-1.22)<0.01
≥ 1 drink/d3 (9)1.43 (0.89-2.30)0.073 (9)0.79 (0.45-1.41)0.093 (9)1.05 (0.76-1.45)0.30
Highest category5 (11)1.12 (0.73-1.74)<0.015 (11)0.75 (0.54-1.04)0.105 (11)0.94 (0.73-1.22)0.20
United States/Canada<1 drink/d7 (8)0.76 (0.58-1.00)<0.017 (8)0.76 (0.53-1.07)<0.017 (8)0.88 (0.69-1.13)<0.01
≥ 1 drink/d4 (5)1.16 (0.95-1.42)0.323 (4)0.76 (0.59-0.98)0.964 (5)1.24 (0.84-1.81)0.01
Highest category8 (9)1.20 (0.98-1.45)0.157(8)0.80 (0.65-0.98)0.308 (9)1.05 (0.89-1.25)0.36
Clearly adjusted for other two types of alcoholic beverages<1 drink/d4 (10)0.64 (0.40-1.02)0.033 (9)0.85 (0.77-0.94)0.643 (9)0.98 (0.89-1.07)0.72
≥ 1 drink/d5 (11)1.37 (1.15-1.63)0.324 (10)0.86 (0.54-1.38)0.025 (11)1.35 (1.08-1.69)0.10
Highest category5 (11)1.37 (1.15-1.63)0.325 (11)1.00 (0.61-1.64)0.015 (11)1.20 (1.06-1.36)0.46
Better adjustment for tobacco smoking<1 drink/d3 (10)0.85 (0.67-1.08)<0.013 (10)0.72 (0.52-0.99)<0.013 (10)0.89 (0.69-1.16)<0.01
≥ 1 drink/d3 (10)1.20 (0.90-1.58)<0.013 (10)0.80 (0.65-0.99)0.253 (10)1.20 (0.98-1.48)0.04
Highest category4 (11)1.10 (0.83-1.49)<0.014 (11)0.83 (0.70-1.00)0.624 (11)1.13 (0.98-1.32)0.26
  • * Number of papers (number of studies): There were seven cohort studies in the pooled analysis by Freudenheim et al. (9); the pooled estimates were used in the meta-analyses because estimates from individual studies were not reported in the paper. There were two independent case-control studies reported separately in Benedetti et al. (30).

  • All pooled RRs are calculated from random-effects model. Reference group: nondrinkers (reference group in studies refs. 10, 30, 31 may include occasional drinkers).

  • P value for test of heterogeneity.

  • § Included studies that reported risk estimates by drinking status only.

  • Better adjustment for tobacco smoking includes studies that included never-smokers only or that adjusted for current smoking status and/or duration since quitting for former smokers, in addition to pack-years smoked.