Table 2.

Summary of cohort studies of types of alcoholic beverages and lung cancer risk

First author (year of publication)CountryCohort descriptionCases/histologic type*Highest consumption category/relative risk (95% CI)
Adjustment factorsReference
Pollack (1984)United StatesJapan-Hawaii Cancer Study: 8,006 Japanese men who were born between 1900 and 191989≥500 oz/mo≥50 oz/mo≥50 oz/moAge, smoking (current status) and other types of alcoholic beverages (if significant)24
NR1.1 (0.7-2.1)2.2 (1.0-4.4)2.6 (1.3-5.0)
Chow (1992)United StatesCohort of 17,818 White men 35 y or older who were life-insurance policy-holders of the Lutheran Brotherhood Insurance Society219>13 times/mo>13 times/mo>13 times/moAge, occupation, and smoking (smoking status, past daily cigarette use, and current daily cigarette use)5
NR1.1 (0.6-1.9)1.0 (0.5-1.8)
Prescott (1999)DenmarkThe Copenhagen City Heart Study, the Centre of Preventive Medicine, and the Copenhagen Male Study: 28,160 (15,107 men and 13,053 women) subjects were included in this studyMen>13 drinks/wk>13 drinks/wk>13 drinks/wkAge, education, study cohort, smoking (current smoking: pack-years and duration), total alcohol consumption and other types of alcoholic beverages10
4801.4 (1.0-1.8)0.4 (0.2-0.9)1.5 (1.0-2.1)
Women1.5 (0.7-3.1)0.2 (0.0-1.3)0.7 (0.2-2.2)
Freudenheim (2005)United States, Canada, EuropePooled analysis based on seven cohort studies: α-Tocopherol β-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (men); Canadian National Breast Screening Study (women); Health Professional Study (men); Iowa Women's Health Study (women); Netherlands Cohort Study (both sexes); New York State Cohort (both sexes); Nurses' Health Study (women). Total of 399,767 participants (137,335 men and 262,432women).Men(ethanol)(ethanol)(ethanol)Education, smoking (smoking status, duration, and daily cigarettes smoked), other types of alcoholic beverages, BMI, and energy intake9
1,762≥15 g/d≥15 g/d≥15 g/d
SCC: 37%1.1 (0.9-1.4)0.9 (0.6-1.4)1.3 (1.1-1.7)
AD: 21%
SCLC: 16%
Women1.9 (1.5-2.4)1.1 (0.8-1.5)1.0 (0.8-1.2)
SCC: 18%
AD: 42%
SCLC: 19
  • * Lung cancer histologic type. SCC: squamous cell carcinoma; AD: adenocarcinoma; SCLC: small cell lung cancer; NR: not reported.

  • Reference group for comparison: nondrinkers, unless otherwise indicated.

  • Compared with <1 drink/wk.