Table 1.

Summary of case-control studies of types of alcoholic beverages and lung cancer risk

First author (year of publication)CountryControl sourceGenderCases/histologic type*ControlsHighest consumption category/relative risk (95% CI)
Adjustment factorsReference
BeerWineLiquor
Mettlin (1989)United StatesHospital controlsMen and women569569≥10 drinks/wk≥10 drinks/wk≥10 drinks/wkAge, sex, education, residence, smoking (likely pack-year) and β-carotene intake39
NR1.3 (0.8-2.1)1.0 (0.4-2.5)0.7 (0.4-1.1)
Bandera (1992)United StatesNeighborhood controlsMen280564≥12 drinks/mo≥2 drinks/mo≥9 drinks/moAge, education, and smoking (pack-years)29
NR1.6 (1.0-2.4)0.7 (0.5-1.1)1.1 (0.7-1.6)
De Stefani (1993)UruguayHospital controlsMen327350(ethanol)(ethanol)(ethanol)Age, education, residence, smoking (pack-years), and other types of alcoholic beverages32
SCC: 46%≥60 mL/d≥121 mL/d≥116 mL/d
AD: 25%3.4 (1.3-15.2)1.5 (0.9-3.3)1.1 (0.6-1.4)
SCLC: 18%
Carpenter (1998)United StatesPopulation controlsMen and women261615≥1 drink/d≥1 drink/d≥1 drink/dAge, sex, race, smoking (pack-years and years since quitting), other types of alcoholic beverages, and saturated fat consumption31
SCC: 23%0.9 (0.4-1.8)0.8 (0.3-1.9)1.9 (1.0-3.4)
AD: 33%
SCLC: 12%
De Stefani (2002)UruguayHospital controlsMen160520(ethanol)(ethanol)(ethanol)Age, education, residence, smoking (smoking status, cigarettes per day, years since quitting and age at starting), total alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and family history of lung cancer.33
AD: 100%≥61 mL/d≥121 mL/d≥121 mL/d
0.6 (0.3-1.6)0.4 (0.2-1.1)1.4 (0.7-3.0)
Hu (2002)CanadaPopulation controlsWomen161483>0.5 drink/wk>0.5 drink/wk>0.5 drink/wkAge, education, residence, and social class. Never-smokers only35
SCC: 6%0.5 (0.2-1.1)0.7 (0.4-1.2)1.1 (0.6-2.1)
AD: 54%
SCLC: 6%
Freudenheim (2003)United StatesPopulation controlsMen and women2733,351(in previous 12-24 mo, ethanol)(in previous 12-24 mo, ethanol)(in previous 12-24 mo, ethanol)Age, sex, race, education, smoking (packs per year and years smoked), passive smoking, BMI, and dietary intake34
NR>1.6 L>1.0 L>1.0 L
1.7 (0.4-1.4)0.7 (0.4-1.3)0.9 (0.5-1.5)
Ruano-Ravina (2004)SpainHospital controlsMen and women132187DrinkersDrinkersDrinkersAge, sex, occupation, smoking (lifetime tobacco consumption) and total alcohol intake21
SCC: 55%1.1 (0.6-2.1)0.5 (0.2-1.4)1.6 (0.8-3.4)
AD: 20%
SCLC: 15%
Kubik (2004)Czech RepublicRelatives or friends of other patientsWomen4351,710>once a week>once a monthDrinkersAge, education, residence and smoking (pack-years)20
SCC: 26%1.0 (0.7-1.5)0.6 (0.4-0.9)0.7 (0.5-1.0)
AD: 35%
SCLC: 23%
Benedetti (2006)CanadaPopulation controlsStudy I≥7 drinks/wk≥7 drinks/wk≥7 drinks/wkAge, race, education, census tract income, smoking (smoking status, cigarette-years and time since quitting) and respondent status30
Men6995071.5 (1.1-2.1)0.7 (0.4-1.1)1.2 (0.8-1.7)
SCC: 41%
AD: 20%
SCLC: 19%
Study II
Men6408611.0 (0.7-1.4)0.8 (0.5-1.1)0.9 (0.7-1.3)
SCC: 33%
AD: 35%
SCLC: 16%
Women4546070.9 (0.5-1.6)0.7 (0.4-1.2)1.7 (0.8-3.5)
SCC: 19%
AD: 48%
SCLC: 16%
  • * Lung cancer histologic type. SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; AD, adenocarcinoma; SCLC, small cell lung cancer; NR, not reported.

  • Reference group for comparison: nondrinkers, unless otherwise indicated.

  • Reference group may include occasional drinkers.