Table 5.

Total daily retinol intake and retinol intake from foods sources at baseline and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the HPFS and NHS cohorts

Total daily retinol intake (IU)
Ptrend
<2,0002,000-3,9994,000-7,999≥8,000
HPFS (1986-2000)
    No. cases58573636
    Person-years201,264158,920128,379122,415
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.11 (0.77-1.60)0.83 (0.55-1.26)0.82 (0.54-1.24)0.18
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.001.03 (0.71-1.50)0.64 (0.40-1.02)0.59 (0.36-0.96)0.02
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)1.001.24 (0.84-1.83)0.87 (0.53-1.42)0.76 (0.42-1.37)0.21
NHS (1984-2000)
    No. cases63374830
    Person-years472,115228,733294,519166,627
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.11 (0.74-1.66)1.04 (0.71-1.51)1.08 (0.70-1.67)0.78
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.001.09 (0.73-1.65)0.98 (0.64-1.51)1.01 (0.59-1.73)0.99
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)1.001.17 (0.77-1.77)1.07 (0.68-1.69)1.09 (0.58-2.03)0.79
Pooled RRs
    No. cases121948466
    Person-years673,379387,653422,898289,042
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.11 (0.84-1.45)0.94 (0.71-1.24)0.93 (0.69-1.26)0.41
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.001.06 (0.80-1.40)0.81 (0.59-1.11)0.75 (0.52-1.08)0.07
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)
1.00
1.20 (0.91-1.60)
0.97 (0.69-1.36)
0.90 (0.58-1.38)
0.43
Daily retinol intake from foods (IU)
Ptrend
<2,000
2,000-3,999
≥4,000
HPFS (1986-2000)
    No. cases46388
    Person-years176,586117,67151,312
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.06 (0.69-1.62)0.51 (0.24-1.07)0.09
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.001.05 (0.68-1.61)0.49 (0.23-1.04)0.08
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)1.001.22 (0.77-1.94)0.56 (0.26-1.20)0.16
NHS (1984-2000)
    No. cases573218
    Person-years444,845174,066106,211
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.26 (0.82-1.95)1.07 (0.63-1.83)0.57
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.001.23 (0.80-1.91)1.00 (0.59-1.70)0.77
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)1.001.27 (0.82-1.98)1.05 (0.61-1.81)0.64
Pooled RRs
    No. cases1037026
    Person-years621,431291,737157,523
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.15 (0.85-1.57)0.83 (0.54-1.29)0.51
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.001.14 (0.84-1.54)0.79 (0.51-1.22)0.36
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)1.001.25 (0.91-1.72)0.85 (0.54-1.32)0.58
  • NOTE: Analysis of nutrients from food sources excludes participants who reported the use of multivitamin supplements and those for whom information about multivitamin supplement use was missing. All RRs are adjusted for age (1-year intervals), time period (2-year intervals), and total energy intake (kcal).

  • * Multivariate RRs additionally adjusted for cigarette smoking (current, former, never), history of diabetes (ever, never), body mass index (cutpoints: 23.0, 25.0, 27.0, 30.0), height (quintiles), region of residence (south, north), use of multivitamin supplements, and parity (among women).

  • Multivariate + vitamin D RRs are additionally adjusted for categories of total vitamin D intake or vitamin D intake from foods as appropriate.