Table 4.

Total daily calcium intake and calcium intake from foods sources at baseline and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the HPFS and NHS cohorts

Total daily calcium intake (mg)
Ptrend
<500500-999≥1,000
HPFS (1986-2000)
    No. cases1711951
    Person-years59,963372,213179,381
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.09 (0.66-1.81)0.87 (0.51-1.52)0.26
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.001.10 (0.66-1.84)0.85 (0.49-1.49)0.19
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)1.001.28 (0.76-2.18)1.23 (0.67-2.25)0.86
NHS (1984-2000)
    No. cases2410945
    Person-years156,300665,099340,595
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.00 (0.64-1.56)0.68 (0.42-1.12)0.03
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.001.01 (0.65-1.58)0.69 (0.42-1.15)0.04
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)1.001.09 (0.69-1.73)0.75 (0.43-1.30)0.09
Pooled RRs
    No. cases4122896
    Person-years216,2631,037,312519,976
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.04 (0.74-1.45)0.76 (0.53-1.10)0.02
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.001.05 (0.75-1.47)0.76 (0.52-1.11)0.02
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)
1.00
1.17 (0.83-1.66)
0.94 (0.62-1.41)
0.29
Daily calcium intake from foods (mg)
Ptrend
<500
500-999
≥1,000
HPFS (1986-2000)
    No. cases106913
    Person-years44,353235,21166,238
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.001.24 (0.64-2.40)0.81 (0.35-1.84)0.31
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.001.26 (0.65-2.46)0.80 (0.35-1.83)0.29
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)1.001.57 (0.77-3.17)1.10 (0.41-2.97)0.89
NHS (1984-2000)
    No. cases286712
    Person-years143,240488,68381,526
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.67 (0.43-1.05)0.65 (0.33-1.28)0.22
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.000.68 (0.44-1.06)0.64 (0.33-1.27)0.20
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)1.000.66 (0.40-1.07)0.64 (0.27-1.52)0.26
Pooled RRs
    No. cases3813625
    Person-years187,593723,894147,764
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.81 (0.56-1.17)0.71 (0.42-1.20)0.11
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.000.82 (0.57-1.19)0.70 (0.41-1.19)0.10
    Multivariate + vitamin D RR (95% CI)1.000.87 (0.58-1.30)0.81 (0.42-1.56)0.39
  • NOTE: Analysis of nutrients from food sources excludes participants who reported the use of multivitamin supplements and those for whom information about multivitamin supplement use was missing. All RRs are adjusted for age (1-year intervals), time period (2-year intervals) and total energy intake (kcal).

  • * Multivariate RRs additionally adjusted for cigarette smoking (current, former, never), history of diabetes (ever, never), body mass index (cutpoints: 23.0, 25.0, 27.0, 30.0), height (quintiles), region of residence (south, north), use of multivitamin supplements (for total calcium intake analyses), and parity (among women).

  • Multivariate + vitamin D RRs are additionally adjusted for categories of total vitamin D intake or vitamin D intake from foods as appropriate.