Table 3.

Daily vitamin D intake from food sources alone and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the HPFS and NHS cohorts

Daily vitamin D intake from foods alone (IU)
Ptrend
<100100-199200-299≥300
HPFS (1986-2000)
    No. cases17372018
    Person-years55,731132,96186,85970,250
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.78 (0.44-1.39)0.56 (0.29-1.08)0.58 (0.30-1.13)0.09
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.000.79 (0.44-1.40)0.57 (0.30-1.09)0.58 (0.29-1.13)0.08
NHS (1984-2000)
    No. cases24452612
    Person-years171,338308,937164,56780,280
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.93 (0.57-1.53)0.92 (0.53-1.60)0.80 (0.40-1.60)0.54
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.000.94 (0.57-1.55)0.91 (0.52-1.59)0.80 (0.40-1.60)0.52
Pooled RRs
    No. cases41824630
    Person-years227,069441,898251,426150,530
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.87 (0.59-1.26)0.74 (0.49-1.14)0.67 (0.42-1.09)0.10
    Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.000.87 (0.60-1.27)0.74 (0.49-1.14)0.67 (0.41-1.09)0.09
  • NOTE: Analysis of nutrients from food sources excludes participants who reported the use of multivitamin supplements and those for whom information about multivitamin supplement use was missing. All RRs were adjusted for age (1-year intervals), time period (2-year intervals), and total energy intake (kcal).

  • * Multivariate RRs additionally adjusted for cigarette smoking (current, former, never), history of diabetes (ever, never), body mass index (cutpoints: 23.0, 25.0, 27.0, 30.0), height (quintiles), region of residence (south, north), and parity (among women).