Table 2.

Total daily vitamin D intake at baseline and the risk for pancreatic cancer in the HPFS and NHS cohorts

Total daily vitamin D intake (IU)
Ptrend
<150150-299300-449450-599≥600
HPFS (1986-2000)
    No. cases4965231436
    Person-years142,237200,61598,27465,814104,629
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.80 (0.55-1.16)0.57 (0.35-0.93)0.48 (0.26-0.87)0.72 (0.47-1.11)0.09
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.000.83 (0.57-1.20)0.58 (0.35-0.96)0.49 (0.27-0.90)0.75 (0.48-1.16)0.12
    Multivariate + multivitamin RR (95% CI)1.000.77 (0.53-1.12)0.49 (0.29-0.82)0.35 (0.18-0.67)0.49 (0.29-0.82)0.01
NHS (1984-2000)
    No. cases5553222226
    Person-years347,219379,125167,748124,542143,359
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.78 (0.53-1.14)0.71 (0.43-1.16)0.91 (0.56-1.50)0.86 (0.54-1.38)0.73
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.000.80 (0.54-1.16)0.74 (0.45-1.21)0.98 (0.59-1.60)0.90 (0.56-1.44)0.90
    Multivariate + multivitamin RR (95% CI)1.000.78 (0.53-1.14)0.68 (0.40-1.15)0.84 (0.46-1.53)0.76 (0.42-1.38)0.47
Pooled RRs
    No. cases104118453662
    Person-years489,456579,740266,022190,356247,988
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.000.79 (0.61-1.03)0.63 (0.45-0.90)0.70 (0.48-1.03)0.78 (0.57-1.08)0.14
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)*1.000.81 (0.62-1.06)0.65 (0.46-0.93)0.74 (0.50-1.08)0.81 (0.59-1.12)0.22
    Multivariate + multivitamin RR (95% CI)1.000.78 (0.59-1.01)0.57 (0.40-0.83)0.56 (0.36-0.87)0.59 (0.40-0.88)0.01
  • NOTE: All RRs are adjusted for age (1-year intervals), time period (2-year intervals), and total energy intake (kcal).

  • * Multivariate RRs additionally adjusted for cigarette smoking (current, former, never), history of diabetes (ever, never), body mass index (cutpoints: 23.0, 25.0, 27.0, 30.0), height (quintiles), region of residence (south, north), and parity (among women).

  • Multivariate + multivitamin RRs are additionally adjusted for the use of multivitamin supplements.