Table 1.

Age-standardized characteristics of men in the HPFS in 1986 and women in the NHS in 1984 by total daily energy-adjusted vitamin D intake

VariableTotal daily vitamin D intake (IU)
<150150-299300-449450-599≥600
HPFS (1986)
    No. men10,78315,3217,5285,0628,077
    Age (y)5254545556
    Daily vitamin D (IU)100214368521893
    Residence in northern state47%49%51%50%48%
    Body mass index (kg/m2)2525252525
    Height (m)1.81.81.81.81.8
    Multivitamin supplement use11%22%43%79%95%
    Physical activity (METs/wk)1921212224
    Smoking history
        Current12%9%9%9%8%
        Former45%41%39%41%42%
        Never40%46%48%46%46%
    Diabetic3%3%3%3%3%
    Total Daily calcium intake (mg)6238071,0351,0321,223
    Daily calcium intake from foods (mg)585761955897931
    Total daily retinol intake (IU)2,3073,1164,5627,29013,890
    Daily retinol intake from foods (IU)1,9692,5742,8652,6262,793
NHS (1984)
    No. women22,49424,56610,9228,1049,341
    Age (y)4950515152
    Daily vitamin D (IU)95212368522829
    Residence in northern state74%75%74%71%69%
    Body mass index (kg/m2)2424242424
    Height (m)1.61.61.61.61.6
    Multivitamin supplement use8%17%56%88%94%
    Physical activity (METs/wk)1214151617
    Smoking history
        Current30%22%22%21%20%
        Former30%31%32%34%36%
        Never40%46%46%45%44%
    Diabetic1%1%1%1%1%
    Parity (No. full-term pregnancies)33333
    Total daily calcium intake (mg)6498381,0281,0351,245
    Daily calcium intake from foods (mg)553727846761860
    Total daily retinol intake (IU)1,9632,8054,7597,44611,919
    Daily retinol intake from foods (IU)1,6962,3002,4802,3002,656
  • Abbreviation: MET, metabolic equivalent task.