Table 2.

Endogenous vitamin D levels and breast cancer risk

First author (ref.), year, study placeYears of data collectionStudy designNo. cases/controlsComparison*OR (95% CL)Variables adjusted for
Hiatt (45), 1998, United States1964/1972-1991Nested case-control study96/96Serum 1,25(OH)2D (pg/mL), ≥51 vs <321.0 (0.2, 3.4)Education, parity, history of breast biopsy, alcohol, breast cancer in mother and sister
Janowsky (44), 1999, United States1990-1991Hospital-based case-control study131/149Blood 1,25(OH)2D (pmol/mL), ≤33.61 vs >62.945.3 (2.1, 13.4)Age, assay batch, month of blood draw, clinic, and sample storage time
Blood 25(OH)DNo association§
Lowe (49), 2005, United Kingdom1998-2003Hospital-based case-control study179/179Plasma 25(OH)D (nmol/L), <50 vs >1505.83 (2.31, 14.7)Matching variables, time of year, age at sampling, and menopausal status
Bertone-Johnson (46), 2005, United States1989/1990-1996Nested case-control study701/724Plasma 25(OH)D (quintile), Q5 vs Q10.73 (0.49, 1.07)Matching variables, BMI at age 18, parity/age as first birth, family history of breast cancer, history of BBD, HRT, age at menarche, age at menopause, alcohol intake, and plasma α-carotene
Plasma 1,25(OH)2D (quintile), Q5 vs Q10.76 (0.52, 1.11)
  • Abbreviation: OR, odds ratio.

  • * The associations shown are for all subjects combined. No associations by menopausal status were reported by these studies.

  • This study was nested in a cohort of 95,000 women. During an average 15.4-year follow-up, 2,131 new breast cancer patients were identified from the cohort. Ninety-six White cases and 96 White controls were randomly selected from study subjects with serum collected in 1964 to 1972.

  • Blood samples were collected after diagnosis. Results presented here are for White women only because sample sizes for other ethnic groups were too small.

  • § The article showed that the blood 25(OH)D level did not differ between cases and controls. However, the article did not present adjusted OR and 95% CL for the association between blood 25(OH)D level and breast cancer risk.

  • This study was nested in the Nurses' Health Study.