Table 1.

Dietary and/or supplemental intake of vitamin D and breast cancer risk

First author (ref.), year, study placeYears of data collectionStudy designNo. cases/controls (cohort)Comparison*RR (95% CL)Variables adjusted for
Simard (38), 1991, Canada1981-1983Case-control study108/322Not statedNo associationNot stated
Witte (39), 1997, United States and Canada1989Familial matched case-control study140/222Not statedNo associationNot stated
John (36), 1999, United States1971-1992Cohort study179/4,747Dietary vitamin D (IU), ≥200 vs <100 IU0.85 (0.59, 1.24)Age, education, age at menarche, BMI, alcohol, physical activity, and calcium intake
Supplemental vitamin D, daily vs never0.89 (0.60, 1.32)
Levi (37), 2001, Switzerland1993-1999Hospital-based case-control study289/442Dietary vitamin D (tertiles), T3 vs T11.43 (0.90, 2.26)Age, education, parity, menopausal status, BMI, energy, alcohol drinking
Shin (40), 2002, United States§1980-1996Cohort study3,172/88,691Total vitamin D (IU/d)Age, period, physical activity, BBD, family history of breast cancer, height, weight change since age 18, BMI at age 18, age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, alcohol intake, energy, glycemic index, β-carotene, and vitamin E
Premenopausal, >500 vs ≤1500.72 (0.55, 0.94)
Postmenopausal, >500 vs ≤1500.94 (0.80, 1.10)
Frazier (42), 2003, United States1980-1986Nested case-control study843/8,430Dietary vitamin D during adolescence (quintiles), Q5 vs Q10.96 (95% CL unknown)Age, age at menarche, menopausal status, family history, BBD, adult height, parity/age at first birth, HRT, BMI at 18, alcohol intake in 1980, and vitamin A intake
Frazier (43), 2004, United States1989-1998Cohort study361/47,355Dietary vitamin D during adolescence (quintiles), Q5 vs Q10.92 (0.66, 1.27)Age, period, height, parity and age at first birth, BMI at 18, age at menarche, family history of breast cancer, history of BBD, menopausal status, alcohol, weight gain since age 18
McCullough (13), 2005, United States**1992-2001Cohort study2,855/68,567Total vitamin D (IU/d), postmenopausal, >700 vs ≤1000.95 (0.81, 1.13)Age, energy, history of breast cyst, family history of breast cancer, height, weight gain since age 18, alcohol use, race, age at menopause, age at first birth and no. live births, education, mammography history, and HRT
Dietary vitamin D (IU/d), postmenopausal, >300 vs ≤1000.89 (0.76, 1.03)
  • Abbreviations: RR, relative risk; 95% CL, 95% confidence limit; HRT, hormone replacement therapy.

  • * The associations are presented by menopausal status whenever the studies reported them separately or the studies were restricted to either premenopausal or postmenopausal women. Otherwise, the associations for a combination of premenopausal and postmenopausal women are presented.

  • No RR were presented.

  • This study was based on First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Only White women were included.

  • § This study was based on the Nurses' Health Study. Cumulative vitamin D intakes were used in the analyses.

  • The study was nested in the Nurses' Health Study. Confidence intervals were not presented.

  • This cohort study was based on Nurses' Health Study II.

  • ** This study, an analysis of postmenopausal women, was conducted in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.