Table 5.

Comparison of survey responses and traffic density values at residence using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA by ranks

Exposure category of residenceData sourceSubjects (n)Mean traffic density* (VMT/d/mi2)P
Heavy/moderate trafficSurvey5578,2370.0001
Light traffic24819,858
Highway within four blocksSurvey9964,7900.0001
No highway20514,569
Urban residenceGIS12461,6200.0001
Rural residence1809,779
  • * Within 500 feet of residence.